The Making of Germany - Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 History

We have explained the Process of making of Germany in detail which is part of Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 History can boost their preparation and assessment of understood concepts. You will understand the various factors through which one can improve their efficiency. It will useful in getting a solid understanding of the various concepts embedded in the chapter.

The Making of Germany - Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 History

The Making of Germany - Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 History

• Before the liberal movement of 1848, the nationalism was associated with liberalism, democracy and revolution. But after the liberal movement of 1848, this association ended and now the nationalist sentiments was in hands of the conservatives.

• In 1848, Middle class tried to unify German regions into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. They drafted the constitution and offered the King of Prussia to be the head but it was rejected by the King. The king with the help of the military disbanded the assembly of middle class forcefully. The king was also supported by the large landowners of Prussia who were called Junkers.  Thus, the attempt to unite Germany failed. 

• After this, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.

• In 1861, William I became the king of Prussia. He appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Chief Minister of Prussia. German regions were divided into various confederation and Bismarck was the architect of German unification which he carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

• Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.

→ War with Denmark: Bismarck started fight with Denmark over control of the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The combined forces of Prussia and Austria defeated Denmark in 1864. Prussia took Schleswig and Austria took Holstein from Denmark.

→ War with Austria: There was dispute over some German lands between two powers, Prussia and Austria which led to seven weeks war of 1866. This led to the creation of the North German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia in 1867.

→ War with France: Prussia fought a number of battles with France and defeated the main French armies and advanced on the the French capital of Paris. They captured Napoleon III, Emperor of France and took an entire army as prisoners at Sedan on 1 September 1870.

• On the bitterly cold morning of 18 January 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including the chief minister Otto von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.

→ Kaiser is a German word used for emperor.

• The whole nation-building process of Germany is done by Prussia and its army with the help of bureaucracy.

• The Prussia brought various measures to modernise the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.
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