Ch 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Extra Questions Class 10th History Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answers Included

Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs):

1. Who was Frederic Sorrieu?


Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who painted a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and social Republics.

(Para – 1, Page No. 3)

2. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?


The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to create a sense of collective identity among the French people.

(Para – 2, Page No. 5)

3. What does Nation-State mean?


A nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.

(Para – 2, Page No. 4)

4. What is meant by Absolutist?


Absolutist is a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and repressive.

(New Words, Page No. 3)

5. What major changes occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe?


The French revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.

(Para – 1, Page No. 5)

6. What is meant by Modern state?


Modern state is a state in which a centralised power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory.

(Para – 2, Page No. 4)

7. What is meant by Nationalism?


Nationalism is a sense of identity with the nation.

(Para – 2, Page No. 8)

8. What do the ideas of la Patrie and le Citoyen emphasize?


The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.

(Para – 2, Page No. 5)

9. Which revolution was the first clear expression of nationalism?


French Revolution

(Para – 1, Page No. 5)

10. When did Napoleonic war begin?


The Napoleonic war began in 1797 when Napoleon invaded Italy.

(Some Important Dates, Page No. 8)

Short Answer Questions (SAQs):

1. Describe the event of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe. 


The events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe: 

• Students and other members of educated middle class began to Set-up Jacobin dubs after the events in France reached the different cities of Europe.

• Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies.

• The French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.

(Para – 4, Page No. 5)

2. What were the changes that took place after the French revolution In France?
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?


• The ideas of la patrie and Ie citoyen emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. 

• A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. 

• The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. 

• New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. 

• Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. 

• Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation. 

(Para – 2, Page No. 5)

3. Briefly describe the concept of liberalism which developed in the Europe in early 18th century?


The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.

• For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.

• Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.

• It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.

• In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

(Para – 2 and 4, Page No. 9)

4. List any three features of the Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code. 


• It did away with all privileges based on birth. 

• It established equality before law and secured the right to property. 

• It simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

(Para – 1, Page No. 6)

5. “Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.” Support the statement with examples.


Culture also played an important role in the development of nationalism alongwith wars and territorial expansion:

• Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.

• The effort of romantic artists and poets was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.

• It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.

(Para – 4 and 5, Page No. 13| Para – 1 and 2, Page No. 14)

6. How did the local people in the areas conquered by the Napoleon react to French rule ? Explain. 


In the areas conquered, the reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed:

• Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. 

• But soon initial enthusiasm faded as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. 

• Increase in taxes, censorship and forced conscription in French armies were seen as outweighing the advantage of administrative changes which Napoleon brought.

(Para – 2, Page No. 7)

7. Why were 1830s called the years of great economic hardship in Europe ? Give any three reasons.
"The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe". Support the statement with arguments. 


• The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe. 

• In most countries, there were more seekers of jobs than employment.

• Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.

• The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country. 

(Para – 3, Page No. 15)

8. How was the ideology of liberalism allied with National Unity in early 19th century in Europe? Explain in three points. 


The ideology of liberalism allied with Nationalism:

• Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before law. 

• It emphasized on the concept of government by consent. 

• It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges. 

• It believed in a constitution and representative government through Parliament. 

• It emphasized the inviolability of private property. 

(Para – 2, Page No. 9)

Long Answer Questions (LAQs):

1. Explain the conditions which were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes. How did it end in 1834?


• There was absence of freedom of markets.

• State imposed various restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

• Presence of large numbers of states created problems as each had its own currency, and weights and measures.

• Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculation.

• In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. 

• The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.

(Para – 4, Page No. 9| Para – 1 and 2, Page No. 10)

2. What happened during the year following 1815 when the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground? Explain. 


• Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. 

• To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress and to fight for liberty and freedom. 

• Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom. 

• Giuseppe Mazzini, a Italian revolutionary founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. 

• Following his model, secret societies were Set-up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.

(Para – 1 and 2, Page No. 12)

3. Explain the events leading to the unification of Germany.


• Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.

• This liberal initiative to nation-building was, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.

• From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. 

• Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

• Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. 

• In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

(Para – 2 and 3, Page No. 19)

4. Describe the process of Unification of Britain. 


• In Britain, the formation of the nation states was the result of long drawn out process. 

• Primary identities of the people were ethnic ones. 

• All ethnic groups such as English, Welsh Scot or Irish had their own cultural and political traditions. 

• The English nation steadily grew in wealth and power. 

• It was able to extend its influence over the other nations. 

• The Act of Union 1707 between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

(Para – 1, Page No. 22)

High Order Thinking Skill (HOTS):

1. Explain the significance of portraying nations as female figures by the European artists of 18th and 19th centuries.
How had the female figure become an allegory of nation during 19th century in Europe? Analyse.


• During the French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.

• Similar female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation.

• These female figures gave an exact idea of the nation in a concrete form and stood as symbols of heroism and liberty respectively.

(Para – 2 and 3, Page No. 23)

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