The Rowlatt Act - Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 History

We have provided about The Rowlatt Act in a detailed manner of Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 History which will make you understand the various factors through which one can improve their efficiency. You will understand the various factors through which one can improve their efficiency. It is quite easy to retain the answers once you are fully aware of the concept thus notes can be beneficial for you.

The Rowlatt Act - Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 History

The Rowlatt Act - Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 History

• The success in local movements inspired Mahatma Gandhi thus he decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).

• The Rowlatt Act of 1919 had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. It also restricted the freedom of the press

Rowlatt Satyagraha

• To oppose the Rowlatt Act, Gandhiji wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6 April 1919.

• Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.

• British administration were alarmed by the popular upsurge, and scared that lines of communication such as the railways and telegraph would be disrupted thus they decided to clamp down on nationalists.

• The firing of police on Delhi crowd caused a number of causalities. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.

• On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

Jallianwalla Bagh incident

• On the 13 April, a large crowd of people gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. 

• Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed.

• General Dyer ordered all exit points of the park sealed, and commanded his troops to open fire on the unarmed crowd. Hundreds of people were shot dead.

• He declared later that his object was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.

Aftermath of Jallianwalla Bagh incident

• The brutality of Jallianwalla Bagh incident was shocked the nation. As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.

• Gandhiji organised a 'passive resistance' movement in protest against the unprovoked firing.

• The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people: satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs; people were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed.

• Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.

Limitation of Rowlatt Satyagraha

• Rowlatt satyagraha had been a widespread movement but it was still limited mostly to cities and towns.

• Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India by bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
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