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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Social Science

Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 History NCERT Solutions will help you in knowing the important concepts of the chapter like First World War, Satyagraha, Khilafat movement, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience movement that has shaped the modern history of India. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India will also prove useful if you want to study the independence struggle of India and revise its topics.

Class 10 History NCERT Solutions are helpful resources that can help you not only cover the entire syllabus but also provide in depth analysis of the topics. Through the help of these NCERT Solutions, you will be able to solve the difficult problems in a given in the chapter.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

Page No: 74

Write in Brief

1. Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer

(a) The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. The movements of freedom struggle were joined by the masses to free themselves from foreign exploitation. Thus, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anti-colonial movements.

(b) During the First World War, to finance the defence expenditure, customs duties were raised and income tax introduced. The forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger. In 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India which resulted in acute shortages of food. Also, there was an influenza epidemic. The hardships of people did not ended after the war. Thus, they united under leaders to find a new way of struggle.

(c) The Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. This was an unjust and oppressive law for Indians. Thus, Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

(d) Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places such as Chauri Chaura incident. He felt that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles. Thus, Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

2. What is meant by the idea Satyagraha?

Answer

Satyagraha was a novel method of mass agitation. The idea of ‘Satyagraha’ emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. A satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence without seeking vengeance or being aggressive.

3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission

Answer

a) On 13th April 1919, the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. A large crowd gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. Some people were present to protest against the British government’s repressive measures while others were there to attend the annual Baishakhi Fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial
law that had been imposed. Suddenly, a British military officer, General Dyer came, blocked the exit points from the Bagh and opened fire upon the innocent citizens. Hundreds of innocent people including women and children were killed and wounded due to firing by the British soldiers.

b) The Simon Commission was constituted by the Tory Government in Britain, under Sir John Simon. The objective of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest some constitutional changes. But nationalists in India opposed the Commission because it had not a single Indian member. Therefore, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”. All parties, including Congress and the Muslim league, participated in the demonstrations.

4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Answer

→ The image of Germania was the symbol of German nation whereas the image of Bharat Mata was the symbol of Indian nation.
→ Both images inspired nationalists who worked very hard to unify their respective countries and to attain a liberal nation.
→ The image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore is bestowed with learning, food, clothing and some ascetic quality also. Another painting of Bharat Mata in which we find Mata holding Trishul and standing beside a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. Germania as a female figure is standing against a background of the tricolour fabric of the national flag. She is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Discuss

1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Answer

The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising lawyers, students, teachers and headmasters, peasants, tribals and workers.
→ The middle class joined the movement because the boycott of foreign goods would make the sale of their textiles and handlooms go up.
→ The peasants took part in the movement because they hoped they would be saved from the oppressive landlords, high taxes taken by the colonial government.
→ Plantation workers took part in the agitation hoping they would get the right to move freely in and outside the plantations and get land in their own villages.

2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation as it was consumed by rich and poor alike. He declared that the tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production was the most oppressive face of British rule. Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate, so Gandhiji started Salt march with 78 volunteers. He reached Dandi, violated law and made salt. This March developed the feeling of nationalism, people in different parts of the country broke the salt law and manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. Thus, Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Answer

I participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement which was called by Gandhiji. I participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops and went to jail. I really see these services to the nation as a sacred duty of women. From the very start, I was sure that British had to leave our country and I saw this as a proud moment as I took part in this activity.

4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?

Answer

Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. They believed political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits. Gandhiji believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.

Go Back To NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History

Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 NCERT Solutions


NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science serve as beneficial tool that can be used to recall various questions any time. In this chapter, we will be learning about Gandhian Era of Indian History where we will see about independence struggles of India. It will help you in improving the marks in the examinations and have edge over your classmates.

Topics in the chapter:

• The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation
→ The Idea of Satyagraha
→ The Rowlatt Act
→ Why Non-cooperation?
• Differing Strands within the Movement
→ The Movement in the Towns
→ Rebellion in the Countryside
→ Swaraj in the Plantations
• Towards Civil Disobedience
→ The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement
→ How Participants saw the Movement
→ The Limits of Civil Disobedience
• The Sense of Collective Belonging


NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapters:



FAQ on Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

How NCERT Solutions of Chapter 2 Nationalism in India for Class 10 History can be helpful for students?



Through the help of Chapter 2 Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions, students should not waste time and adopt a strategy that helps them operate and learn at maximum efficiency. It will ake much easier to memorize topics faster and frame better answers for students. Students can cross check thier answers and also whether they learned it properly or not.

Why Ganhiji launched Non-cooperation Movement and how it started?



According to Gandhiji, British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation. Therefore, if Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year and swaraj would come. Thus, Ganhiji launched Non-cooperation Movement. It started with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.

What is Inland Emigration Act of 1859?



Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission. For them freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.


How Civil disobedience movement started?



The civil disobedience movement started with the breaking of salt law by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji chose salt because it was consumed by the rich and the poor both and most essential items of food thus it could unite the nation. On 31st January, 1930, Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands in which most important of the demands was the abolition of salt tax. He gave ultimatum to the government to accept the demands by 11th march otherwise he would launch a civil disobedience campaign. The Viceroy, Irwin not accepted the demands.
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