Extra Questions for Class 10th: Ch 3 Nationalism in India History

Extra Questions for Class 10th: Ch 3 Nationalism in India History Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answer Included

Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs):

1. What do you mean by forced recruitment?

Answer

Forced recruitment is a process by which the colonial state forced people to join the army.

(New Words, Page No. 54)

2. When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?

Answer

In January, 1915

(Para - 5, Page No. 54)

3. What does ‘Idea of satyagraha’ highlight?

Answer

The idea of satyagraha highlight the power of truth and the need to search for truth.

(Para – 1, Page No, 55)

4. Name the places where Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised satyagraha movements.

Answer

Champaran in Bihar and Kheda in Gujarat.

(Para – 2, Page No. 55)

5. What were the demands of the peasants of Kheda?

Answer

The peasants of Kheda were demanding that revenue collection should be relaxed.

(Para – 2, Page No. 55)

6. Which act gave enormous powers to the government to repress political activities?

Answer

Rowlatt Act.

(Para – 3, Page No. 55)

7. Trace the reason because of which Gandhiji started Satyagraha in 1919.

Answer

To protest against Rowlatt act.

(Para – 3, Page No. 55)

8. Name the General who was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh incident.

Answer

General Dyer.

(Para – 1, Page No. 56)

9. Why did Mahatma Gandhi call off Rowlatt Satyagraha ?

Answer

Gandhiji called off Rowlatt Satyagraha due to spread of violence.

(Para – 2, Page No. 56)

10. What were the limitations of Rowlatt Satyagraha?

Answer

Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited mostly in cities and towns and people started using violent methods.

(Para – 3, Page No. 56)

Short Answer Questions (SAQs):

1. Mention three main proposals with reference to the Non-cooperation Movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhiji.

Answer

The three main proposals were:
(i) Surrender of titles, honours and honorary posts.
(ii) Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils.
(iii) Boycott of government controlled schools and colleges.
(iv) Boycott of British goods including mass-produced mill-cloth.

(Para – 2, Page No. 57)

2. What was the impact of the First World War on India?
OR
Explain new economic and political situations created in India during the First World War.

Answer

(i) The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes, customs duties were raised, and income tax introduced.

(ii) Through the war years, prices increased leading to extreme hardships for the common people.

(iii) Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.

(Para – 2, Page No. 54)

3. What was the impact of the Rowlatt Act Satyagraha on the political situation in India? Describe.

Answer

(i) Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.
(ii) Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
(iii) In Amritsar, the police fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.

(Para – 4, Page No. 55)

4. Why was the Khilafat Committee formed in Bombay?

Answer

(i) The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.
(ii) There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
(iii) To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.

(Para – 3, Page No. 56)

5. Write a short note on the Rowlatt Act of 1919.

Answer

(i) It gave enormous powers to repress political activities.
(ii) Allowed detention of political prisoners without trial.
(iii) It was passed by Imperial Legislative Assembly despite the strong opposition of the Indian members.

6. Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhiji.

Answer

(i) The idea of ‘Satyagraha’ emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(ii) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(iii) According to Gandhiji, without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence.

(Para – 1, Page No. 55)

7. What were the causes of the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer

(i) Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places such as Chauri Chaura incident.
(ii) He felt that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
(iii) Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections.

(Para – 1, Page No. 62)

8. Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act? Explain any three reasons.

Answer

(i) The Rowlatt Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
(ii) It gave the government enormous power to repress political activities.
(iii) It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

(Para – 3, Page No. 55)

Long Answer Questions (LAQs):

1. How did the ‘First World War’ create a new economic and political situation in India? Explain with examples.

Answer

(i) The war created a new economic and political situation.
(ii) It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes, custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
(iii) Through the war years prices increased doubling between 1913 and 1918 that created extreme hardship for the common people.
(iv) Villagers were asked to supply soldiers and through force recruitment in rural areas.
(v) During 1918-19, crops failed in many parts of India which created shortage of food and spread of influenza epidemic. Both resulted in the death of 12 to 13 million people.

(Para – 2, Page No. 54)

2. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919? How was it organized? Explain.

Answer

Gandhiji decided to launch nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919 because:
(i) The Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
(ii) It gave government enormous powers to repress political activities.
(iv) It allowed detention of political prisoners without trials for two years.
It was organized:
(i) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
(ii) It was started with a ‘Hartal’ on 6th April.
(iii) Rallies were organized in various cities.
(iv) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(v) Shops were closed down.

(Para – 3 and 4, Page No. 55)

3. Describe the incident and impact of the Jallianwala Bagh.

Answer

Incident of the Jallianwala Bagh:
(i) On 13th April large crowd gathered in Jallianwala Bagh.
(ii) Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures.
(iii) Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair.
(iv) General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds to create a feeling of terror.
Impact:
(i) As the news spread, crowd took to the streets in North Indian towns.
(ii) There were strikes, clashes with police.
(iii) Attacks on Government buildings.
(iv) The government responded with brutal repression to terrorize people.

(Para – 1 and 2, Page No. 56)

4. Explain the response of the plantation workers to the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Gandhiji. What did freedom mean for them?

Answer

(i) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
(ii) When they heard of the Non–Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
(iii) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.
(iv) They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
For them, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.

(Para – 2, Page No. 60)

NCERT Solutions of Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Notes of Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

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