NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities

Chapter 5 Primary Activities NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography will help you in analyzing the problems and answering it with precision and the right concepts. Class 12 NCERT Solutions are useful in increasing concentration among students and checking your own answers. Chapter 5 Primary Activities Class 12 Geography Notes will make entire memorizing process effortless and entertaining.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following is not a plantation crop?
(a) Coffee
(b) Sugarcane
(c) Wheat
(d) Rubber
► (c) Wheat

(ii) In which one of the following countries co-operative farming was the most successful experiment?
(a) Russia
(b) Denmark
(c) India
(d) The Netherlands
► (b) Denmark

(iii) Growing of flowers is called:
(a) Truck farming
(b) Factory farming
(c) Mixed farming
(d) Floriculture
► (d) Floriculture

(iv) Which one of the following types of cultivation was developed by European colonists?
(a) Kolkoz
(b) Viticulture
(c) Mixed farming
(d) Plantation
► (d) Plantation

(v) In which one of the following regions is extensive commercial grain cultivation not practised?
(a) American Canadian prairies
(b) European Steppes
(c) Pampas of Argentina
(d) Amazon Basin
► (d) Amazon Basin

(vi) In which of the following types of agriculture is the farming of citrus fruit very important?
(a) Market gardening
(b) Plantation agriculture
(c) Mediterranean agriculture
(d) Co-operative farming
► (b) Plantation agriculture

(vii) Which one type of agriculture amongst the following is also called ‘slash and burn agriculture’?
(a) Extensive subsistence agriculture
(b) Primitive subsistence agriculture
(c) Extensive commercial grain cultivation
(d) Mixed farming
► (b) Primitive subsistence agriculture

(viii) Which one of the following does not follow monoculture?
(a) Dairy farming
(b) Mixed farming
(c) Plantation agriculture
(d) Commercial grain farming
► (b) Mixed farming

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Future of shifting cultivation is bleak. Discuss.


Shifting cultivation is usually cleared by fire, and the ashes add to the fertility of the soil. After some year, the soil looses its fertility and the farmer shifts to another parts and clears other patch of the forest for cultivation. This type of cultivation is only for self consumption purpose and not for market demand. It has destroyed the environment and resulted in soil erosion. Thus, future of shifting cultivation is bleak.

(ii) Market gardening is practised near urban areas. Why?


Market gardening specializes in the cultivation of high value perishable crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers, solely for the urban markets. They are situated close to urban markets mainly because these are located where there are good transportation links with the urban centre where high income group of consumers is located. 

(iii) Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.


Dairy farming is focused on the production of milk and making products. Good network of transport is essential for collecting and delivering the dairy products. Refrigeration prevents dairy products from getting spoiled and increased their duration of shortage.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) Differentiate between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing.


Nomadic Herding Commercial Livestock Rearing
It is a primitive subsistence activity. It is more organised and capital intensive.
The herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport and move from one placeto another along with their livestock, depending on the amount and quality of pastures and water. It is practised on permanent ranches that cover large areas and are divided into a number of parcels, which are fenced to regulate the grazing. When the grass of one parcel is grazed, animals are moved to another parcel.
It is practised in semi-arid area of Central Asia, Africa and S.W. Asia. It is practised in temperate and tropical grasslands where temperature and rainfall conditions are moderate.
The process of migration from plain areas to pastures on mountains during summers and again from mountain pastures to plain areas during winters is known as transhumance. Rearing of animals in ranching is organised on a scientific basis where main emphasis is on breeding, genetic improvement, disease control and health care of the animals.
It is practised by nomadic tribes such as Kirghiz, Bedouins, Masai and Fulani tribes It is practised in some developed countries like Australia, New Zealand and Argentina whose economy is dependent.

(ii) Discuss the important characteristic features of plantation agriculture. Name a few important plantation crops from different countries.


Plantation agriculture was introduced by the Europeans in colonies situated in the tropics. Some of the important plantation crops are tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cotton, oil palm, sugarcane, bananas and pineapples.

The characteristic features of are:
• Large estates or plantations
• Large capital investment
• Managerial and technical support
• Scientific methods of cultivation
• Single crop specialisation
• Cheap labour
• A good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the export of the products.

Important Plantation Crops:

• Cocoa and coffee plantations in West Africa.
• Tea gardens in India and Sri Lanka,
• Rubber plantations in Malaysia
• Sugarcane and banana plantations in West Indies.
• Coconut and sugarcane plantations in the Philippines.
• sugarcane plantation in Indonesia.
• Some coffee fazendas (large plantations) in Brazil.
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