NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Human Development

Chapter 4 Human Development NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography is useful in passing examinations with flying colours. These NCERT Solutions are helpful resources that will provide in depth analysis of the topics. Chapter 4 Human Development Class 12 Geography Revision Notes will ensure retaining the syllabus more easy and efficient.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Human Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Human Development

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following best describes development?
(a) an increase in size
(b) a constant in size
(c) a positive change in quality
(d) a simple change in the quality
► (c) a positive change in quality

(ii) Which one of the following scholars introduced the concept of Human Development?
(a) Prof. Amartya Sen
(b) Ellen C. Semple
(c) Dr Mahabub-ul-Haq
(d) Ratzel
► (c) Dr Mahabub-ul-Haq

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are the three basic areas of human development?


Access to resources, health and education are the basic areas in human development.

• Access to resources: The purchasing power determines access to resources which is measured in terms of US dollars.
• Health: The health indicator chosen to assess health is the life expectancy at birth. A higher life expectancy means that people have a greater chance of living longer and healthier lives. 
• The adult literacy rate and the gross enrolment ratio represent access to knowledge. The number of adults who are able to read and write and the number of children enrolled in schools show how easy or difficult it is to access knowledge in a particular country.

(ii) Name the four main components of human development?


The concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment are four main main components of human development

(iii) How are countries classified on the basis of human development index?


Countries can be classified into four categories on the basis of human development index as:

Level of Human Development Score in Development Index Number of Countries
Very High above 0.800 59
High between 0.701 up to 0.799 53
Medium between 0.550 up to 0.700 39
Low below 0.549 38

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) What do you understand by the term human development?


The concept of human development was introduced by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq. Dr Haq has described human development as development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives. People are central to all development under this concept. These choices are not fixed but keep on changing. The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.

A meaningful life is not just a long one. It must be a life with some purpose. This means that people must be healthy, be able to develop their talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goals. Leading a long and healthy life, being able to gain knowledge and having enough means to be able to live a decent life are the most important aspects of human development. Building people’s capabilities in the areas of health, education and access to resources is important in enlarging their choices. If people do not have capabilities in these areas, their choices also get limited.

(ii) What do equity and sustainability refer to within the concept of human development?


Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.

For example, in any country, it is interesting to see which group the most of the school dropouts belong to. This should then lead to an understanding of the reasons for such behaviour. In India, a large number of women and persons belonging to socially and economically backward groups drop out of school. This shows how the choices of these groups get limited by not having access to knowledge.

Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations.

For example, If a community does not stress the importance of sending its girl children to school, many opportunities will be lost to these young women when they grow up. Their career choices will be severely curtailed and this would affect other aspects of their lives. So each generation must ensure the availability of choices and opportunities to its future generations.
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