NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science The Crisis of Democratic Order

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science The Crisis of Democratic Order

1. State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are correct or incorrect.
(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.
► (a), (c), (d), (e) are Correct and (b) is incorrect.

2. Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency
(a) The call for ‘Total Revolution.
(b) The Railway Strike of 1974
(c) The Naxalite Movement
(d) The Allahbad High Court verdict
(e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report
► (e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report

3. Match the following

(a) Total Revolution i. Indira Gandhi
(b) Garibi hataoii. Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Students’ Protestiii. Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strikeiv. George Fernandes


(a) Total Revolution ii. Jayaprakash Narayan
(b) Garibi hataoi. Indira Gandhi
(c) Students’ Protestiii. Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strikeiv. George Fernandes

4. What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?


• Janata Party lacked a strong leadership and a common programme.
• Janata party government could not bring a fundamental change in policies pursued by Congress.
• There was a split in Janata Party and the government led by Morarji Desai which lost its majority in less than 18 months.
• Ch. Charan Singh govenment was formed due to support of Congress party which later decided to withdraw its support resulting resignation of Charan Singh government within four months.

5. The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?


The Shah Commission was appointed in May, 1977 by Janata Party government. if was headed by J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India. The commission was appointed to look into the matters of:
• Allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices as well as actions taken in the name of emergency proclaimed on 25 June 1975.
• The Commission examined various kinds of evidence and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies including Indira Gandhi who appeared before the Commission but refused to answer any questions.

Findings of Shah Commission:
(a) It found many ‘excesses’ committed during Emergency.
(b) Under preventive detention laws nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested.
(c) Press censorship took place without any proper legal sanctions.
(d) Even general manager of Delhi Power Supply Corporation received verbal orders from the officers of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspapers press.

The Government of India accepted these findings, the reports were also presented in the two houses of parliament.

6. What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?


Emergency was proclaimed in response to petition filed by Raj Narain to declare Indira Gandhi’s election invalid.
• On June 25, 1975, the government declared the threat of internal disturbances to invoke Article 352 of constitution.
• Article 352 can declare emergency on ground of either internal or external disturbances.
• The government decided a grave crisis to be arisen to proclaim emergency to bring law and order, restore efficiency and implement pro-poor welfare programmes.
• The President Fakhruddin Adi Ahmad proclaimed emergency which became the most controversial episode in Indian Politics.

7. The 1977 elections for the first time saw the Opposition coming into power at the Centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?


After 18 months of emergency, in January, 1977 the Congress (I) Government decided to hold elections but the 1977 elections were evolved as a shock to everyone as Congress party was defeated for the very first time and opposition party came into power:
• The Janata Party made the elections of 1977 like a referendum on the issue of emergency. In its election campaign this party laid focus on undemocratic character of the Indira Government and excesses that the people had to suffer.
• The opposition adopted the slogan ‘Save democracy’ against imposition of emergency earlier.
• The opposition party highlighted the preventive detention and press censorship to favour public opinion.
• Even some disgruntled leaders of the Congress (I) joined it. Some leaders of this party formed another party (Congress for Democracy) under the headship of Jagjivan Ram. After the elections, it was merged with the Janata Party.

8. Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity.
(a) Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
(b) Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary.
(c) Functioning of Mass Media.
(d) Working of Police and Bureaucracy.


(a) Under the provisions of emergency, the fundamental rights of the citizens were suspended. Now they did not have the right even to move the Courts for the protection of their freedoms. The government made large scale arrests under preventive detention. Arrested political person could not challenge arrest grounds to even under Habeas Corpus petition.

(b) During the period of emergency, Writ petitions were filed in the High Courts and Supreme Court on behalf of the detained persons, but the Government's reply was that the reasons of detention could not be given in the public interest. The 42nd was also passed to bring a series of changes in constitution like duration of legislatures, elections can be postponed by one year during an emergency.

(c) During emergency the Government imposed press censorship. The newspapers were need to get prior approval before publishing of any of their material. Kannada writer Shivarama Karanth awarded with Padma Bhushan and Hindi writer Fanishwarnath Tlenu with Padmashri returned their awards in protest against suspension of democracy. Newspapers mainly Indian Express, and the statesman protested against censorship by leaving blank spaces where news items were censored.

(d) During emergency police committed excesses. Some people died in police custody. The bureaucracy also expanded its wings. It imposed family planning measures. Unauthorised structures were demolished. The slums were cleared by the use of force.

9. In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.


• The party in power due to its absolute majority dared to suspend democratic process. Therefore, wide and open ended powers were given to the government during Emergency.
• A tension and differences arose between institution based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation.
It was attributed to incapability of party system to incorporate aspirations of the people.
• For the first time, opposition parties came together to form a new party ‘Janata Party’ not to divide the non-Congress votes.
• 1977 elections brought an end to one party dominance and created coalition government.

10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
“Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups The Janata Party also went through major convulsions David Butler, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy.
—Partha Chatterjee
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Party?


(a) The crisis emerged due to the imposition of Emergency in 1977 made the party system in India look like a two-party system.

(b) Two parties existed in 1977 were Congress and non-Congress parties to be described as close to two party system because it ended the one party dominance and emerged Janata Party, umbrella of non-Congress parties.

(c) Congress splitted on the issues of presidential elections in 1969. Janata Party splitted due to tensions among three leaders Morarji Desai, Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram for leadership in 1979.
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