NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 8 Transport and Communication

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 8 Transport and Communication Fundamentals of Human Geography


Page No: 80

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) The Trans–Continental Stuart Highway runs between
(a) Darwin and Melbourne
(b) Edmonton and Anchorage
(c) Vancouver and St. John’s City
(d) Chengdu and Lhasa
► (a) Darwin and Melbourne

(ii) Which country has the highest density of railway network?
(a) Brazil
(b) U.S.A 
(c) Canada
(d) Russia
► (b) U.S.A

(iii) The Big Trunk Route runs through
(a) The Mediterranean – Indian ocean
(b) The North Atlantic Ocean
(c) The South Atlantic Ocean
(d) The North Pacific Ocean
► (b) The North Atlantic Ocean

(iv) The Big Inch pipeline transports
(a) Milk
(b) Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) 
(c) Water
(d) Petroleum
► (d) Petroleum

(v) Which one pair of the following places is linked by Channel Tunnel?
(a) London – Berlin
(b) Paris – London 
(c) Berlin – Paris
(d) Barcelona – Berlin
► (b) Paris – London

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are the problems of road transport in mountainous, desert and flood prone regions?


The problems of road transport in mountainous, desert and flood prone regions are:

• In mountainous regions, there is steep slope and unlevelled patterns which make difficult to construct roads. The construction and maintenance of roads are very high.

• In deserts, constructing roads is difficult due to excessive sand. Scarce vegetation and low density of population do not encourage roads.

• In flood prone areas, roads get damaged frequently.

(ii) What is a trans–continental railway?


Trans–continental railways run across the continents and links two ends. They were constructed for economic and political reasons to facilitate long runs in different directions.

(iii) What are the advantages of water transport?


There are various advantages of water transport:

• It does not require route construction. The oceans are linked with each other and provide passages to ships of various sizes.

• It is much cheaper because the friction of water is far less than that of land. The energy cost of water transportation is lower.

• It is useful for the transportation of heavy and bulky goods.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) Elucidate the statement– “In a well managed transport system, various modes complement each other”.


In a well managed transport system, various modes do not compete with each other but complement each other.
• Railways are more useful for moving bulky goods and passengers over long distances while Roadways are suitable for the faster movement over shorter distances and door-to-door services. They also act as feeder transport to railways.
• When urgent and faster movement required then air transport is the most appropriate option.
• International movement of bulky goods can be possible through ocean routes.
• Railways also serve ports so that goods can move faster and more cheaply.
• For crossing seas and mountains more faster we can use air tranposrt.
• Liquids and gases such as water, petroleum and natural gas can be transported better through pipelines than all other means of transport.

(ii) Which are the major regions of the world having a dense network of airways.


• Air Transport is the only means to reach mountainous snow fields or desert terrains.

• At present no place in the world is more than 35 hours away. This startling fact has been made possible due to people who build and fly airplanes.

• Frequent air services are available to many parts of the world. Although, U.K. pioneered the use of commercial jet transport, U.S.A. developed largely post-War international civil aviation.

• Today, more than 250 commercial airlines offer regular services to different parts of the world.

• Dense network exists in Eastern U.S.A., Western Europe and South East Asia. U.SA. alone accounts for 60 per cent of the airways of the world. New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Rome, Moscow, Karachi, New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Chicago are the nodal points where air routes converge or radiate to all continents. Africa, Asiatic part of Russia and South America lack air services.

(iii) What are the modes by which cyber space will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans.


The modes by which cyber space will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans are:

• e-mail - Electornic mail is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronics. These are delivered extremely fast when compared to traditional post thus, widely accepted by business, governments and non-governmental organizations in the developed world. Each email has the date and time recorded on it which is helpful in avoding confusion and dispute.

• e-commerce: It is a transaction of buying or selling online. It can take place 24 hours a day, seven days a week and can provide wide variety of options than traditional stores. The customer can order the product of their choice and get it delivered to their home.

• e-learning: It is the use of technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere. It can include training, the delivery of just-in-time information and guidance from experts. Knowledge can also be shared via the Internet, which is accessible 24/7, anywhere, anytime.

• e-governance: It is a style of governance in which information and communication technology (ICT) is applied for achieving the results. Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner.

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