NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Rise of Popular Movements

Chapter 7 Rise of Popular Movements NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science are prepared as per the accordance of latest CBSE guidelines so you can score maximum marks. It will help in building a great foundation of concepts and make easy for the students to understand basics. Class 12 NCERT Solutions prepared by our experts try to provide all round clarity of questions.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Rise of Popular Movements

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Rise of Popular Movements

1. Which of these statements are incorrect The Chipko Movement
(a) was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
(b) raised questions of ecological and economic exploitation.
(c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women
(d) demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources
► (c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women

2. Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the incorrect statements and rewrite those with necessary correction:
(a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
(b) The main strength of social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(c) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.


(a) Social movements involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems.

(c) Social movements in India emerged to reduce the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of groups from democracy.

3. Identify the reasons which led to the Chipko Movement in U.P in early 1970s. What was the impact of this movement?


Chipko movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools. The forest department allotted
the same patch of land for commercial use. The villagers protested against the move of the government which soon spread across many parts of the Uttarakhand region.
Impact of the movement:
• Women’s active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement.
• Government issued a ban on felling of tress in Himalayan region for fifteen years until green cover was fully restored.
• It became a symbol of many such popular movements emerging in different parts of the country during the 1970s and later.

4. The Bharatiya Kisan Union is a leading organisation highlighting the plight of farmers. What were the issues addressed by it in the nineties and to what extent were they successful?


Bharatiya Kisan Union is an organization highlighting the plight of the farmers which is mainly active in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. Issues addressed by BKU:
• Increase in the purchase price of wheat and sugarcane.
• abolition of restrictions on the inter-state movement of farm produce
• guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates
• waiving of repayments due on loans to farmers 
• the provision of a government pension for farmers.

Throughout the decade of eighties, the BKU organised massive rallies of farmers in many district headquarters of the State and also at the national capital. The BKU kept itself aloof from all political parties. On the basis of its numerical strength it operated like a pressure group in politics. In association with other kisan bodies in the country, it succeeded in getting some of its demands fulfilled.

5. The anti-arrack movement in Andhra Pradesh drew the attention of the country to some serious issues. What were these issues?


• The anti-liquor movement in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh was a self–generated agitation of the women which demanded ban on the sale of liquor in their area and its neighbourhood.
• The women had enrolled in the Adult Literacy Drive on a large scale and during the discussion in the class that women complained of increased consumption of a locally brewed alcohol – arrack – by men in their families.
• They came together in spontaneous local initiatives to protest against arrack and forced the closure of wine shop.

Issues raised by the anti-arrack movement:
• Its demand touched upon larger section of social, economic and political issues which had established a close nexus between crime and politics.
• Women openly discussed the issues of domestic violence like dowry, sexual violence etc.
• Anti-arrack movement provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.

6. Would you consider the anti-arrack movement as a women’s movement? Why?


Yes, as it saw the large participation of women which discussed private issues of domestic violence in male dominated society.
• The ill-effects of alcohol as it resulted in the collapse of the family economy and women had to bear the brunt of violence from the male family members, particularly the husband.
• The simple demand touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women’s life.
• Groups of local women tried to address these complex issues in their agitation against arrack and also openly discussed the issue of domestic violence.

7. Why did the Narmada Bachao Aandolan oppose the dam projects in the Narmada Valley?


Narmada Bachao Aandolan was a movement to save Narmada, opposed the construction of these dams and questioned the nature of ongoing developmental projects in the country.
• The movement demanded that the persons displaced as a result of the implementation of the project be properly rehabilitated.
• The local communities must have a say in such decisions and they should also have effective control over natural resources like water, land and forests.
• It demanded that there should be a cost-benefit analysis of the major developmental projects completed in the country so far.
• This movement also questioned the nature of decision making process to be in framing of mega scale development projects.

8. Do movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy? Justify your answer with examples.


Yes, peaceful movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy.
• Anti-arrack movement: This movement saw the participation of women which demanded ban on taking liquor that had become the cause of exploitation and torture of women in the villages of Andhra Pradesh. In course of time, it covered other issues as domestic violence, sexual assaults, dowry deaths etc. The women agitators also raised the issue of women empowerment.
• Chipko Movement: The movement provided the unique way to save the tress by hugging them. Ultimately, Government issued a ban on felling of tress in Himalayan region for fifteen years until green cover was fully restored.
• Kisan Movements: In the 1980s, BKU mobilised the kisans in support of their demands. Like the Bharatiya Kisan Union, similar kisan unions raise demands in the favour of farmers who had their influence in the electoral politics of the area.

9. What issues did the Dalit Panthers address?


Dalit Panthers, a militant organisation of the Dalit youth, was formed in Maharashtra in 1972. Dalit groups were mainly fighting against the perpetual caste based inequalities and material injustices that the Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice.
• Dalit Panthers mostly centred around fighting increasing atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the State.
• The movement provided a platform for Dalit educated youth to use their creativity as a protest activity.

10. Read the passage and answer questions below:
…., nearly all ‘new social movements’ have emerged as corrective to new maladies – environmental degradation, violation of the status of women, destruction of tribal cultures and the undermining of human rights – none of which are in and by themselves transformative of the social order. They are in that way quite different from revolutionary ideologies of the past. But their weakness lies in their being so heavily fragmented. …… …. …….a large part of the space occupied by the new social movements seem to be suffering from .. various characteristics which have prevented them from being relevant to the truly oppressed and the poor in the form of a solid unified movement of the people. They are too fragmented, reactive, ad hocish, providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change. Their being anti-this or that (anti-West, anti-capitalist, anti-development, etc) does not make them any more coherent, any more relevant to oppressed and peripheralized communities. — RAJNI KOTHARI
(a) What is the difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies?
(b) What according to the author are the limitations of social movements?
(c) If social movements address specific issues, would you say that they are ‘fragmented’ or that they are more focused? Give reasons for your answer by giving examples.


(a) The social movements raise important issues and problems related to society as gender discrimination, dowry system, torture of women etc while revolutionary ideology desire immediate change in the social, economic, political and cultural spheres.

(b) According to the author these social movements are not any more coherent, relevant, to oppressed and peripheralised communities. To some extent these are affected by party politics. All these according to him act as a barrier in social movements.

(c) If social movements address specific issues, they are fragmented because they are providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change i.e., Anti-arrack movement, Dalit Panthers, etc.
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