NCERT Revision Notes for Chapter 6 Physical Activities and Leadership Training Class 11 Physical Education

Topics in the Chapter
  • Introduction to physical activity and leadership
  • Qualities and role of a leader
  • Behavior change stages for Physical activity
  • (Pre-contemplation, contemplation, planning, active maintainance)
  • Creating leaders through Physical Education
  • Meaning, objectives and types of adventure sports
  • (Rock climbing, trekking, River rafting, Mountaineering, surfing and Para-gliding)
  • Safety measures during physical activity and adventure sports

Introduction to Physical Activity and Leadership Training
Physical Activity: Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy.

The four main types of physical activities are:
1. Aerobic
2. Muscle-strengthening
3. Bone-strengthening
4. Stretching
  • Leadership — Leadership can be described as the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of an organization or a group of which they are members.
  • Leader — A person who can bring about change, therefore, is one who has the ability to be a leader.

Qualities of Leader

  • Awareness: A leader should be aware of different scenarios and things going around in his surroundings.
  • Passionate: the leader should be passionate for goal of his team and should motivate other teammates for this.
  • Energetic: A leader should be full of energy and enthusiasm to do and lead for any task.
  • Friendliness and affection: A leader should act with friendly attitude with his team mates. He should have affection for each and every teammate without any discrimination.
  • Decisiveness: A leader should be able to make quick decisions.
  • Technically skilled: A leader should be skilled enough to solve any technical problem occurred during any task.
  • Intelligent: He should have good IQ so that he can understand any issues related with team and resolve it.
  • Teaching skill: He should be able make things understand easily for his team mates.
  • Creative: A leader should be innovative so that he can derive new and fresh concepts.
  • Interest in Research: A leader should not fear from taking risks. He should keep researching things well.

L— Loyalty
E— Empathy
D— Duty & Determination
E— Energy & Encouragement
R — Respect
S— Selflessness
H — Honorable and humble
I— Integrity & Innovation
P — Passion for and pride in work

Role of a leader in Sports

  1. Organiser: A good leader in sports is a good organiser in organising different sports events.
  2. Motivator: A leader in sports understands his students and thier mental needs. So, he plays the role of a good motivator.
  3. Guardian: A good leader plays the role of guardian. A good leader understands the personal problem of an athlete and provides solution for the problems.
  4. Teacher: A good leader in sports performs the role of a teacher by helping participants in developing teaching techniques, educate them and improve their range of styles.
  5. Psychologist: A good leader plays the role of a psychologist. He knows the mental skills and toughness of their players.
  6. Role model: As leader, you should be able to set a role model.

Behavior Change and Techniques /Stages for Physical Activity

→ The Stages of Behavior Changes:
  1. Precontemplation: Unaware of Problem 
  2. Contemplation: Aware of problem and desired Behavior change
  3. Preparation: Intend to take Action
  4. Action: Practice to desired Behavior
  5. Maintenance:  Work to Sustain the Behavior Change. 

→ The Five Stages of Change:

Creating leaders through physical education we can make leaders through physical education by adopting the following approach:
  1. One should be given responsibilities to organize and coordinate various events.
  2. Leadership training programs should be organized in form of classrooms and seminars. 
  3. One should be provided opportunities to give his/her view 
  4. Recognize achievements of one by facilitating them at different forms.
  5. Have faith and confidence in your students if they are defaulter.

Adventure Sports

(a) Adventure Sports

Meaning: Adventure sports are such type of sports, which involve extraordinary speed, height, physical exertion, and surprising stunts. 

Aims and Objectives of Adventure Sports

• Aim of Adventure Sports: The main aim of adventure sports is to provide a carefully planned stimulating environment which will help each individual and excellent foundation for creative learning and independence.

Objectives of Adventure Sports :

  • To get thrilling experience
  • To have some fun in life
  • To get exposure to Nature
  • Self-assessment
  • Overcome fear and develop self confidence
  • Enhancement of decision making power
  • Channelizing energy
  • Stress buster
  • Information and knowledge enhancement
  • Development of positive attitude toward life
  • Build concentration
  • Encouragement of social relationship and teamwork
  • Develop motor and cognitive skills
  • Creative learning
  • Inculcate values amongest children

Types of Adventure Sports

(a) Mountaineering: It includes sports activity carried out on Mountains or hilly areas. Some sports activities related to mountaineering are given below:
  • Mountaineering
  • Treakking
  • Mountain biking & cycling
  • Rock climbing

(b) Water Sports: It includes sports activities related to water. 
  • Surfing
  • Extreme canoeing
  • Cliff diving
  • Barefoot water skiing
  • Windsurfing
  • Scuba diving
  • Rowing
  • Water Polo sports 
  • River rafting

(c) Winter Sports: It includes sports activities related to snow. 
  • Ice climbing
  • Ice Boating
  • Snow Boarding
  • Skiing
  • Snowmobiling
  • Helisking
  • Mountaineering
  • Sketting
  • Bobsledding

(d) Air Sports: Sports related to sky
  • Para-gliding
  • Hotair
  • Ballooning
  • Zip-fining
  • Bungee jumping
  • Base Jumping
  • Sky diving
  • Hang gliding
  • Sky surfing

Types of Activities

  • Camping means going away temporarily to a place with temporary accommodation in form of tents
  • It is like going away from home to a new home (camp) with limited facilities. There are various types of camping such as scout camp, N.C.C. camp. 
  • N.S.S. camp, Sports camp, adventure camp and social camp etc.

Rock Climbing
  • Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climbs up, down or across a natural rock or artificial rockwalls. 
  • The objective or goal of a climber is to reach the end point or summit of a pre decided route without falling. 
  • Different types of climbing are:- Aid climbing, free climbing, trad or traditional climbing “Sport climbing top rope climbing free soloing and bouldering.

  • Trekking means going for long and difficult journey by feet.  
  • Trekking course often includes journey over mountainous regions or in woods. 

→ Different types of trekking:
(a) Easy trekking: The individuals especially the beginners are offered easy treks.
(b) Moderates trekking: Moderates trekking are slightly difficult and challenging than easy treks. The one who have mastered easy treks should go for moderates trek.
(c) Strenuous trekking: Strenuous trekking a lot of physical effort energy and determination is required.
(d) Difficult trekking: Such type of trekking is suitable only for real adventure seekers or trained professionals. 

River Rafting
  • River rafting is another adventure sport. It is a river journey under taken on a raft or boat made of inflatable material. The difficulty of river rafting is from grade I to VI.  

  • Mountaineering is an adventurous sport that combines climbing and hiking up mountains or mountain terrains.
  • It prevailing all over the world and is one of the best adventurous activities.
  • It is one of the finest outdoor opportunities available to the lovers of high places.

  • Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore. 
  • Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found in the ocean, but can also be found in lakes or in rivers in the form of 'a standing wave or tidal bore. 
  • Surfers can also utilize artificial waves such as those from boat waves and the waves created in artificial wave pools.

  • A person jumps from an aircraft or high place wearing a wide, rectangular, steerable parachute. Such kind of sports activities are known as Paragliding. 
  • Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure.
  • The pilot sits in a harness suspended below a fabric wing comprising a large number of inter connected baffled cells.

Safety Measures During Adventure Sports

Safety Measures for Camping:

  • Camping sight must be plain and clean
  • Mever approach wild animals
  • Always be alert and aware of your surroundings
  • Look out for snakes, spiders and other creatures
  • Protect your eyes 
  • Maintain discipline
  • Be careful around water
  • Pay attention to weather condition etc. 

Safety Measures for River Rafting:
  • Don’t go for river rafting alone. 
  • It is better to have Swimming ability if one is going for River Rafting. Wear life vast and helmet. Check equipment for defects. 
  • Raft only in day time.

Safety Measures for Surfing:
  • Read and obey the signs.
  • Don’t swim directly after meal. 
  • Don’t swim under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
  • Always swim under supervision or with a friend.
  • Always swim or surf at places patrolled by surf lifesavers or life guard.

Safety Measures for Paragliding:

→ Paragliding safety includes four items:

1. Preparation
(a) Gather information about the weather forcast, the actual wind conditions, the site etc.
(b) Maintain your equipment with regular inspection and monitoring.

2. A Good Launch
A good launch requires keeping the legs down until well clear of the hill.  

3. Reaching the landing zone with sufficient altitude for an approach
During the flight, the number one goal should be to make sure and reach the Landing Zone (LZ) with enough altitude to assess wind conditions and plan a safe approach.

4. A good Landing 
Landing in the LZ into or mostly wind is the priority. 

Safety Measures during Physical Activities
  • One should increase level of our Physical activities from easy to moderate and then going to next level.
  • Difficult exercise should not be performed at once out of peer pressure. 
  • We should consult to doctor in case of unusual strain due to physical activities. 
  • Listen to the trainer (if any) properly and work accordingly. 

Tips for avoiding Injuries during Physical Activities
  • Take 5 to 10 minutes to warm up and cool down properly.
  • Plan to start slowly and boost your activity level gradually.
  • Exercising vigorously in hot, humid conditions can lead to serious over heating and dehydration. Slow your pace when you feel exhausted.
  • Drink plenty of water during physical activity.
  • Dress properly during Physical activites for cold - weather workouts to avoid hypothermia. 
  • Choose clothes and shoes designed for your type of exercise. Replace shoes every six months as cushioning wears out.
  • It should be according to Your Physical and Mental condition. Hold off on exercise when you are sick or feeling very fatigued.
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