NCERT Revision Notes for Chapter 2 Olympic Movements Class 11 Physical Education

Topics in the Chapter
  • Ancient  Olympics
  • Modern Olympics
  • Winter Olympics
  • Summer Olympics
  • Olympic symbols, ideals, objectives and values
  • International Olymopic Committee
  • Indian Olympic Association
  • Dronacharya Award, Arjuna Award and Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award
  • Organisational setup of CBSE sports and Chacha Nehru sports award

Ancient Olympic Games

• Many stories has been told regarding the origin of ancient games.

• The written record is found from 776 B.C.

• The games were held in the Honour of God Zeus.

• The word Olympics is derived from the Lord Olympia - a valley where first seen games were held.

Modern Olympic Games

• Modem Olympic Games started in 1896 with the efforts of Baron-Pierre de Coubertin of Francee, also known as the father of modern Olympics.

• The first Olympic games were held in Athens in 1896.

• Nine Countries Participated in first modern Olympic Games.

• Since then, the Olympic games are played after every four Years. Though games were interrupted thrice in between due to 2 world wars.

• Last Olympics were held in Rio, Brazil.

• 2020 Olympic games will be held in Tokyo.

Winter Olympic Games

• Winter Olympic Games is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years.
In Winter Olympics, sports related with snow and ices are practiced. For example: Ice Hockey, Ski Jumping.

The first Winter Olympics, the 1924 Winter Olympics, was held in Chamonix, France.

The Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936.

Games were interrupted by World War II for four years.

The Olympics Games resumed after world war  in 1948 was again held every four years.

• The Winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same years, but in accordance with a 1986 decision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to place the Summer and Winter Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years.

• The Winter Olympics has been hosted on three continents by eleven different countries.

• The Games have been held in the United States four times (1932; 1960, 1980, 2002); in France three times (1924, 1968, 1992); and in Austria (1964, 1976), Canada (1988, 2010), Japan (1972, 1998), hajv (1956, 2006).  Norway (1952, 1994), and Switzerland (1928, 1948) twice. Also, the Games have been held in Germany (1936), Yugoslavia (1984). and Russia (2014) once.
The IOC has selected Pveongchanu, South Korea, to host the 2018 Winter Olympics and Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.

Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, BrazilThe International Olympic Committee organises the games and oversees the host city's preparations

In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third; this tradition began

In 1904 The Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics.

Eighteen countries have hosted the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted four Summer Olympics (1904. 1932, 1984, 1996), more than any other nation, and Great Britain has hosted three Summer Olympics (1908, 1948, 2012). al! in London.

Four cities have hosted two Summer Olympics: Athens (1896. 2004), Paris (1900, 1924). Los Angeles (1932, 1984). and Tokyo (1964. 2020).

Tokyo is the first Asian City to host the Summer Olympics multiple times.

Olympic Symbols

• This Olympic symbol was created and designed by Pierre-de-coubertin, the father of modern Olympics.

• Pierre-de-coubertin, created Olympic flag which is ofa milky white texture in the background with five interlinked rings of different colours.

• The rings symbolize the union of five continents-America, Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe.

• It Symbolizes meeting of the atheletes form all over the world (from these five continents) at Olympics.

• The five colours are Blue, Black, Red, Yellow & Green.

Olympic Motto

• Olympic motto is made from three Latin Words.
Citius - Faster
Altius -Higher

Objectives of Olympics

• To generate the sense of loyalty, brother hood and team spirit among the participants.

• To bring the attention of the world community to understand the values of the programmes of physical education.

• To Promote amateurism among the sport men

• To remove the barriers of caste, creed, religion and colour

• To develop good habits among sports persons

• To encourage moral values and unbiased behaviour through sports

Values through Olympics

Olympic Ideal

• Olympic Games are remembered for the Bishop Pennsylvania’s famous sermon “The most important thing in Olympic is not to win but to take part. The important thing in life is not to triumph to struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.”

• It means participation is more important than winning. It is about the fighting spirit. 

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

• The International Olympic Committee was constituted for proper organization of Olympic Games. 

• One representative was included in this committee from each country.

• The headquarters of this committee is situated in Switzerland. 

• Five executive members of this committee decide the venue and time for Olympic Games.

Indian Olympic Association (IOA)

• Indian Olympic Association was formed in 1927. 

• Mr. Dorabji Tata was its first president and Dr. D.B. noehren, secretary and Sh. G.D. Sondhi as Astt. secretory. 

• IOA has affiliation from  International Olympic Committee. Composition of Indian Olympic Association Election of Indian Olympic Association are held in four year at the annual meeting of the General Assembly to elect the council members. These members are President, Vice President, Secretary General, Treasurer and Executive Members

Sports Awards

• To promote sports, certain sports awards have been given by Government of India. They are for sportsman as well as for coaches. 

Dronacharya Award

• Dronacharya award is given to those coaches and trainers whose players have performed well at international level. 

• Dronacharya awards has been given from 1985. 

• It is given to famous coaches whose teams and players have shown good performance at International level consecutively for three years. 

• This award consist of  statue of Dronacharya, scroll of honour and cash prize of 5 lakhs.

Arjuna Award
• Arjuna award is one of the top level award given to sports personality given by Government of India. 

• It is awarded to sports man by the Government of India. 

• This award is given to such sport person during that year, who has been giving extraordinary performance during the past three year. This awarded was started in 1961. 

• It is given in the memory of Arjuna of Mahabharata, the great Archer. These sports award carry
a) Bronze Statue of Arjuna
b) A Certificate
c) Cash of Rs. 5 Lakhs 

Rajeev Gandhi Khel Ratna Award

• This award is presented for the most outstanding performance in the field of sport and games in a year which begins from 1st April to 31st March. It is given to sportsmen. 

• This award is presented to one sports person from individual sports, but it can be given to more than one person. 

• The award consists of a medal and cash award of Rs. 7.5 lakhs.

CBSE Sports and its Organisational Setup

• CBSE Organizes its sports and games at cluster level Zonal level and National level in various categories and sports annually as per their calendar. 

• This is for CBSE affiliated Schools. In other words, it is for interschool sports event for CBSE Schools. 

• The sports and games are organised under the general directions of the CBSE. 

• CBSE formulates polices and rules for smooth conduct of this event.

Chacha Nehru Sports Award

• CBSE wish to apprise you that the Central CBSE Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has started Chacha Nehru Sports Scholarships for Sports Talents.

• There are 50 scholarships each year at the rate of Rs.500/- per month to all identified sports talents in class IX-XI based on the performance at national level in various disciplines of CBSE Inter School Sports and Games. 

• The aims and objectives of introduction of Chacha Nehru sports award is to identify, recognise, nurture and develop the extraordinary talent among the students studying in class VIII onwards in sports and games and students also know the importance of physical education and sports.
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