Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Mind Map - Class 9th History

This chapter tells the story about the emergence of socialism in Europe and how it takes practical shape in Russia.

The Age of Social Change

Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives

• Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions, they opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.
• Radicals wanted a nation in which govt. was based on the majority of a country’s population.
• Conservatives opposed to radicals and liberals.

Industrial Society and Social Change

• New cities came up, railways expanded and Industrial Revolution occurred.
• Brought men, women and children to factories, work hours were long and wages poor.

The Coming of Socialism to Europe

• Came in mid-nineteenth century.
• Socialists were against private property.

Support for Socialism

• Formed an international body–The Second International.
• Set up funds to help members in times of distress, demanded reduction of working hours and rights to vote.

The Russian Revolution

The Russian Empire in 1914

• Ruled by Tsar Nicholas II.
• Majority religion was Russian Orthodox Christianity.

Economy and Society

• Most people were agriculturists major exporters of grain, railway network extended.

Socialism in Russia

• Set up a newspaper, mobilised workers  and organised strikes.

The 1905 Revolution

• Demanded a Constitution.
• Prices of essential goods rose, real wages declined,
• Bloody Sunday over 100 workers were killed who went to Winter Palace to present petition.

The First World War and the Russian Empire

• Central Powers- Germany, Austria and Turkey.
• Allied Powers- France, Britain and Russia

The Revolution of October 1917

• Conflict between Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks.

The Civil War

• Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising.

Making a Socialist Society

• Bolsheviks kept industries & banks nationalised, permitted peasants to cultivate land.

Stalinism and Collectivisation

• Acute problem of grain supplies.
• Collectivisation of farms  to reduce shortages.

The Global Influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR

• Communist parties were formed like Communist Party of Great Britain. 
• USSR style of government was not in keeping with the ideals of Russian Revolution. 
• International reputation of USSR as a socialist country declined.

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