Chapter 1 How, When and Where Class 8 Extra Questions History Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answer Included

Very Short Answer Questions:

1. Who was the last Viceroy of India?


Lord Mountbatten

2. Who prepared the first map and when?


James Rennel in 1782.

3. Who was James Mill? 


He was a Scottish economist and a political philosopher who published a massive three volume work- A History of British India. 

4. How did Mills divide Indian History? 


Mills divided Indian History into three periods namely, Hindu, Muslim and British.

5. Why did the British establish botanical gardens?


To collect plant specimens and information about their uses.

6. Who was the first Governor General of India?


Warren Hastings

Short Answer Questions (SAQs):

1. Why do we associate history with dates?


Because there was a time when history was an account of battles and big events. 
• Historians wrote about the year a king was crowned, the year he married, the year he had a child, the year he fought a particular war, the year he died, and the year the next ruler succeeded to the throne.
• For these events specific dates can be determined, and dates continue to be important.

2. The periodisation of Indian history into ‘ancient’, ‘medieval’ and ‘modern’ has its own problems. What are these problems?


• It is a periodisation that is borrowed from the West where the modern period was associated with the growth of all the forces of modernity – science, reason, democracy, liberty and equality. 
• Medieval was a term used to describe a society where these features of modern society did not exist. 
• Under British rule or in modern period people did not have equality, freedom or liberty. Nor was the period one of economic growth and progress. It is therefore many historians refer to modem period as colonial period. 

3. What do official records not tell? How do we come to know about them?


Official records do not always help us understand what other people in the country felt, and what lay behind their actions. 
• For that we have diaries of people, accounts of pilgrims and travellers, autobiographies of important personalities, and popular books, etc. that were sold in the local bazaars. 
• With the spread of printing press, newspapers came to be published and issues began to be debated in public. Leaders and reformers wrote to spread their ideas, poets and novelists wrote to express their feelings.

4. How did the British conquer India and establish their rule?


• The British subjugated local nawabs and rajas.
• They established control over the economy and society collected revenue to meet all their expenses, bought goods they wanted at lower prices and produced crops they needed for export.
• They brought changes in rulers and tastes, customs and practices.

Long Answer Questions (LAQs):

1. Why were surveys carried out under the British Rule in India?


The British believed that a country had to be properly known before it could be effectively administered. Therefore, by the early nineteenth century detailed surveys were being carried out to map the entire country.:
• They conducted revenue surveys in villages.
• They made efforts to know the topography, the soil quality, the flora, the fauna, the local histories and the cropping pattern.
• They also introduced census operations, held at the interval of every ten years from the end of the 19th century. They prepared detailed records of the number of people in all the provinces of India, noting information on castes, religions and occupation separately.
• The British also carried on several other surveys such as botanical surveys, zoological surveys, archaeological surveys, forest surveys, etc. In this way, they gathered all the facts that were essential for administering a country.

2. Describe how the official records of the British administration helped historians to write about the last 250 years of Indian history.


The British believed that the act of writing was important. Hence, they got written up every instruction, plan, policy decision, agreement, investigation, etc. Once this was done, things could be properly studied and debated. This conviction produced an administrative culture of memos, notings and reports.
They were very interested in preserving all important documents and letters. For this, they established record rooms attached to all administrative institutions such as the village tahsildar’s office, the collectorate, law courts etc. They also set up archives and museums to preserve important records.
Letters and memos that moved from one branch of the administration to another in the early years of the nineteenth century can still be read in the archives. Historians can also take help from the notes and reports that district officials prepared or the instructions and directives that were sent by officials at the top to the provincial administrators.

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