Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions History Social Studies (S.St) Important Questions Answer Included

Very Short Answer Questions:

1. Who was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers?



2. With what purpose did the British originally come to India?



3. Who was the ruler of England in 1600?


Queen Elizabeth I

4. Name a thing produced in India which had a big market in Europe. 


Fine qualities of cotton and silk (Any One)

5. How did the royal charter empower the East India company?


Through royal charter, East India company gained sole trading rights with the East.

6. Why did the Battle of Plassey become famous?


It was the first major victory the Company won in India.

7. When did the British emerge on the political horizon of India? 


By the second half of the 18th century

8. Who discovered the sea route to India and when? 


Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, discovered the sea route to India in 1498 C.E.

9. When did Siraj-ud-Daulah become the Nawab of Bengal? 


Siraj-ud-Daulah became the Nawab of Bengal in 1756 C.E., after the death of Alivardi Khan.

Short Answer Questions:

1. What led to a fierce battle between the European trading companies? 


• The competition for Indian silk, cotton, spices among the European companies pushed up the prices at which goods could be purchased which led to reduction of profit. 
• They saw a way to increase profit by eliminating rival companies which led to a fierce battle between the trading companies. 
• They regularly sank each other's ships, blocked routes and prevented rival ships from moving with supplies of goods. Trading posts were also protected with arms and fortifications.

2. Give an account of different European trading companies besides the British East India Company that entered the Eastern markets.


Different European trading companies were:
• The Portuguese: By the time the first English ships sailed down the West coast of Africa, round the Cape of Good Hope, and crossed the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese had already established their presence in the western coast of India and had their base in Goa.
• The Dutch: By the early 17th century, the Dutch too were exploring the possibilities of trade in the Indian Ocean.
• The French: The French traders soon arrived on the scene for the same purpose.

3. What were the causes of conflict between Siraj-ud-Daulah and the British? 


• The Company was not paying taxes.
• The Company officials were writing disrespectful letters to the Nawab. 
• The British started deploying forces in Calcutta and in spite of the refusal of the Nawab to allow them to keep their forces there, the British did not with draw them.

Long answer Questions:

1. How did the East India Company begin trade in Bengal?


• The East India Company set up first English factory on the banks of the river Hugli in the year 1651 which became the base from which the Company’s traders, known at that time as ‘factors’, operated. 
• The factory had a warehouse where goods for export were stored and it had offices where Company officials set. As trade expanded, the Company persuaded merchants and traders to come and settle near the factory.
• By 1696 the Company began to build a fort around the settlement. Two years later it bribed Mughal officials into giving the Company zamindari rights over three villages. One of these was Kalikata which later developed into a city, known as Calcutta. 
• The Company also persuaded the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a farman granting the Company the right to trade duty-free. 
• The Company tried continuously to press for more concessions and manipulate existing privileges.

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