Notes of Ch 4 Electoral Politics| Class 9th Civics

Study Material and Notes of Ch 4 Electoral Politics Class 9th Civics

An election is a process through which people choose their representatives at regular intervals.

What makes an election democratic?

• Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.

• Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.

• Elections must be held regularly after every few years.

• The candidate preferred by the people should get elected.

• Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner where people can choose as they really wish.

What is system of elections in India?

General Election

• Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within a few days.


• Sometimes election is held only for one constituency or two to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member.

Electoral Constituencies

• The country is divided into different areas based on population for the purpose of elections which are called electoral constituencies.

• For Lok Sabha elections, the country is divided into 543 constituencies.

• Similarly, each state is divided into a specific number of Assembly constituencies.

Reserved Constituencies 

• Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

Voter’s List

• The list of people who are eligible for voting is prepared by the Election Commission of India before election.

• In India, all the citizens aged 18 years and above has the right to vote, regardless of his or her caste, creed, colour, religion or gender.

Nomination of Candidates

• Anyone who can be a voter can also become a candidate in elections.

• However, minimum age of in order to be a candidate the minimum age is 25 years.

Election Campaign

• The campaigns take place for a two-week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling.

Polling and Counting of Votes

• The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote.

What Makes Elections in India Democratic?

Independent Election Commission

• In India, elections are conducted by an independent and very powerful Election Commission (EC) which enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. 

• The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India.
→ But once appointed, CEC is not answerable to the President or the government.

Acceptance of election outcome

• The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state level.

• In India about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.

Challenges to free and fair elections in India

• Candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory but they do enjoy a big and unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.

• In some parts of the country, candidates with criminal connection have been able to push others out of the electoral race and to secure a ‘ticket’ from major parties.

• Some families tend to dominate political parties; tickets are distributed to relatives from these families.

• Very often elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens, for both the major parties are quite similar to each other both in policies and practice.

• Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties.

NCERT Solutions of Chapter 4 Electoral Politics

Extra Questions of Chapter 4 Electoral Politics

MCQ Test of Chapter 4 Electoral Politics

Watch age fraud in sports in India


Get Offline Ncert Books, Ebooks and Videos Ask your doubts from our experts Get Ebooks for every chapter Play quiz while you study

Download our app for FREE

Study Rankers Android App Learn more

Study Rankers App Promo