Study Material and Notes of Ch 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals Class 8th Science


• Deforestation
→ Causes of Deforestation
→ Consequences of Deforestation
• Biodiversity
• Protected areas
→ Wildlife Sanctuary
→ National Parks
• Biosphere Reserves
• Red Data Book
• Migration
• Recycling of Paper
• Reforestation


→ Deforestation is the process of clearing of forests in order to use the land for industrial, agricultural, and other purposes.

Causes of Deforestation

→ Natural causes
→ Forest fire
→ Severe droughts
→ Man-made causes
→ Using land for agricultural purposes
→ Rapid urbanization
→ Procurement of wood for fuel and furniture

Consequences of Deforestation

→ Increase in the level of carbon dioxide in atmosphere, which leads to global warming

→ Lowering of ground water levels

→ Increase in pollution level and temperature

→ Decrease in fertility of soil and amount of rainfall

→ Increase in frequency of droughts and floods

→ Desertification- conversion of fertile lands into deserts.


→ Biodiversity is the species richness of the biosphere. It is defined as the number and variety of life forms such as plants, animals and microorganisms in an area.

→ It supports all the essential living resources such as wild life, fisheries and forests.

→ Forests help in maintaining the delicate balance of nature.

→ Animals living in forests are called wild animals.

→ The plants found in a particular area are known as flora of that area.

→ The animals found in a particular area constitute fauna of that area.

→ Those species of plants and animals, which are found only in a particular area, are called endemic species.

→ Species is a group of organisms in population which are capable of interbreeding.

→ The animals, whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction, are called endangered animals.
For example: tiger, lion, and elephants

→ Project tiger was launched by the government of India to protect endangered tigers in their natural habitat.

→ The flora and fauna of a particular habitat can be protected through special protected areas.

Protected areas

A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space which is recognised and managed by government to achieve the long term conservation of nature, culture and preserve ecosystem.

Wildlife sanctuary

→ It is the place where wild animals are protected from hunting and are provided with suitable living conditions.
For example: Madhumalai wildlife sanctuary in Tamil Nadu, Chilika bird sanctuary in Orissa, etc.

National parks

→ These are the areas reserved for wildlife. They are maintained and preserved by the government for the public to visit.
For example: Ranthambore National Park in Rajasthan, Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh, etc.

→ Satpura National Park is the first reserve forest of India.

Biosphere Reserves

→ It is a large protected land for conservation of wild life, plant and animals resources, and the traditional life of the tribal groups living in the area.
For example: Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve and Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in India.

Red Data Book

→ It is the source book maintained by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources).

→ It keeps a track record of various endangered species of plants and animals.


→ It is the movement of birds and animals from their original habitat to other places at a particular time.

→ Migratory birds fly to distant areas every year during a particular time because of climatic changes their original habitat becomes very cold and inhospitable lack of food availability

→ Numerous migratory birds including ducks, geese, flamingos, and cranes fly to India every year.

Recycling of paper

→ One ton of paper is made from about seventeen fully-grown trees.

→ Papers should be recycled and reused to conserve forest.

→ Each paper can be recycled three to seven times.

→ Recycling of paper saves trees, energy and water.

→ It prevents the release of harmful chemicals emitted during paper manufacturing in nature.


→ Restoring of destroyed forests by planting new trees is called reforestation.

→ It helps in checking environmental degradation.
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