NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 6 Secondary Activities

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 6 Secondary Activities Fundamentals of Human Geography

Exercises

Page No: 53

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following statements is wrong?
(a) Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.
(b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
(c) The development of hydro-electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a locational factor for industry.
(d) Port towns in India have attracted industries.
► (b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.

(ii) In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually?
(a) Capitalist
(b) Mixed
(c) Socialist
(d) None
► (a) Capitalist

(iii) Which one of the following types of industries produces raw materials for other industries?
(a) Cottage Industries
(b) Small-scale Industries
(c) Basic Industries
(d) Footloose Industries
► (c) Basic Industries

Page No: 54

(iv) Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?
(a) Automobile industry … Los Angeles
(b) Shipbuilding industry … Lusaka
(c) Aircraft industry … Florence
(d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh
► (d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh

2. Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.
(i) High-Tech industry
(ii) Manufacturing
(iii) Footloose industries

Answer

(i) High technology is the latest generation of manufacturing activities which is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Highly skilled specialists greatly
outnumber the actual production (blue collar) workers. Examples are robotics on the assembly line,
computer -aided design (CAD) and manufacturing.

(ii) Manufacturing literally means ‘to make by hand’. However, now it includes goods ‘made by machines'. It is a process which involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets.

(iii)  Footloose industries are not dependent on any specific raw material, weight losing or otherwise. They largely depend on component parts which can be obtained anywhere. They produce in small quantity and also employ a small labour force. It can be located in a wide variety of places.

3. Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

(i) Differentiate between primary and secondary activities.

Answer

Primary activities
Secondary activities
Primary activities involve extraction of raw materials from the earth's surface.  Secondary activities involve transforming of raw materials into finished goods.
Primary activities include hunting and gathering, pastoralism, fishing, forestry,  mining and agriculture.  Secondary activities include manufacturing of various products like textiles, iron and steel, fertilizers, cement,  etc. 
They are almost the only source of food supply and raw materials for industries.  Secondary activities have their impact on health, education, transport and trade. 
People engaged in primary activities are called red-collar workers. People engaged in secondary activities are called blue-collar workers. 

(ii) Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world.

Answer

Modern industrial activities involve the application of power, mass production of identical products
and specialised labour in factory settings for the production of standardised commodities.

Some major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries are:

• Specialisation of Skills of Production: Mass production involves production of large quantities of standardised parts by each worker performing only one task repeatedly.

• Mechanisation: Mechanisation refers to using gadgets which accomplish tasks. Automation is the advanced stage of mechanisation. Automatic factories with feedback and closedloop computer control systems where machines are developed to ‘think’, have sprung up all over the world.

• Technological Innovation: Technological innovations through research and development strategy are an important aspect of modern manufacturing for quality control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and combating pollution.

Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
(i) a complex machine technology
(ii) extreme specialisation and division of labour for producing more goods with less effort, and low costs
(iii) vast capital
(iv) large organisations
(v) executive bureaucracy.

(iii) Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.

Answer

High-tech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing activities. It is the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Professional (white collar) workers make up a large share of the total workforce. High qualified need better facilities such as institutions, hospitals, shopping malls, restaurants etc.

Neatly spaced, low, modern, dispersed, office-plant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape. Planned business parks for high-tech start-ups have become part of regional and local development schemes.

Therefore, high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.

(iv) Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.

Answer

The continent of Africa is very rich in natural resources such as crude oil, copper, coal, manganese but they are still backward because:

• Colonial Exploitation: African countries remained under foreign rules who exploited the natural resources for their own benefits rather than developing industries and infrastructure.

• Lack of Human Resources: The continent lack good institutions and thus the people are not well educated and skilled. The utilization of natural resources demands human resources.

• Civil Wars: The civil wars in the countries of Africa are frequent. There is mass scale corruption in the governments of the African countries which hinder the growth of countries.

• Lack of technological development: The countries of Africa are technologically very poor. The exploration and extraction of natural resources could not be possible without technology.

Which sports has maximum age fraud in India to watch at Powersportz.tv
Facebook Comments
0 Comments
© 2017 Study Rankers is a registered trademark.