NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Fundamentals of Human Geography


Page No: 63

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following is a tertiary activity?
(a) Farming
(b) Trading
(c) Weaving
(d) Hunting
► (b) Trading

(ii) Which one of the following activities is NOT a secondary sector activity?
(a) Iron Smelting
(b) Catching fish
(c) Making garments
(d) Basket Weaving
► (b) Catching fish

(iii) Which one of the following sectors provides most of the employment in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
(a) Primary
(b) Quaternary
(c) Secondary
(d) Service
► (d) Service

(iv) Jobs that involve high degrees and level of innovations are known as:
(a) Secondary activities
(b) Quaternary activities
(c) Quinary activities
(d) Primary activities
► (d) Primary activities

(v) Which one of the following activities is related to quaternary sector?
(a) Manufacturing computers
(b) Paper and Raw pulp production
(c) University teaching
(d) Printing books
► (c) University teaching

Page No: 64

(vi) Which one out of the following statements is not true?
(a) Outsourcing reduces costs and increases efficiency. 
(b) At times engineering and manufacturing jobs can also be outsourced. 
(c) BPOs have better business opportunities as compared to KPOs. 
(d) There may be dissatisfaction among job seekers in the countries that outsource the job.
► (c) BPOs have better business opportunities as compared to KPOs. 

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words. 

(i) Explain retail trading service.


Retail trading service is the business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most of the retail trading takes place in fixed establishments or stores solely devoted to

(ii) Describe quaternary services. 


Quaternary services involve the collection, production and dissemination of information or even the
production of information. These activities centre around research, development and may be seen as an advanced form of services involving specialised knowledge and technical skills.

(iii) Name the fast emerging countries of medical tourism in the world. 


India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia are the fast emerging countries of medical tourism in the world. 

(iv) What is digital divide?


Opportunities emerging from the Information and Communication Technology based development is unevenly distributed across the globe. There are wide ranging economic, political and social differences among countries. While developed countries in general have surged forward, the developing countries have lagged behind and this is known as the digital divide. 

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) Discuss the significance and growth of the service sector in modern economic development.


Services are usually defined as ‘activities’ which are relatively detached from material production and hence are not directly involved in the processing of physical materials.

• Services are an important part of modern economic development which include health, education, law, governance and recreation etc.

• Services are provided to individual consumers who can afford to pay for them. Many services have now been regulated with the growth of population. Making and maintaining highways and bridges, maintaining fire fighting departments and supplying or supervising education and customer -care are among the important services most often supervised or performed by governments or companies.

• State and union legislation have established corporations to supervise and control the marketing of such services as transport, telecommunication, energy and water supply.

• Professional services are primarily health care, engineering, law and management. The location of recreational and entertainment services depends on the market.

• Today most people are service workers. Services are provided in all societies. But in more developed countries a higher percentage of workers is employed in providing services as compared to less developed countries.

• The trend in employment in this sector has been increasing while it has remained unchanged or decreasing in the primary and secondary activities.

(ii) Explain in detail the significance of transport and communication services.


The significance of transport and communication services:

• Transport and communication services are called lifeline of an economy.

• Transport is a service or facility by which people, materials and manufactured goods are physically carried from one location to another. Modern society requires speedy and efficient transport systems to assist in the production, distribution and consumption of goods. At every stage in this complex system, the value of the material is significantly enhanced by transportation.

• Communication services involve the transmission of words and messages, facts and ideas. The invention of writing preserved messages and helped to make communication dependent on means of transport. These were actually carried by hand, animals, boat, road, rail and air. Where the transport network is efficient, communications are easily disseminated. Certain developments, such as mobile telephony and satellites, have made communications independent of transport.

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