NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System


1. Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?
(a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
(b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.
(d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.
► (a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.

2. Match the following:

(a) Syndicatei. An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket s/he has been elected
(b) Defectionii. A catchy phrase that attracts public attention
(c) Sloganiii. parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies
(d) Anti-Congressismiv. A group of powerful influential leaders within Congress

Answer

(a) Syndicate ii. A catchy phrase that attracts public attention
(b) Defectioni. An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket s/he has been elected
(c) Sloganiv. A group of powerful influential leaders within Congress
(d) Anti-Congressismiii. parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies

3. Whom would you identify with the following slogans/phrases?
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(b) Indira Hatao!
(c) Garibi Hatao!

Answer

(a) Lai Bahadur Shastri
 (b) Syndicate
 (c) Indira Gandhi

4. Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct? The Grand Alliance …
(а) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
(b) had a clear political and ideological programme.
(c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.
► (a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.

5. How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings?
(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president
(b) Listen to the majority group
(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue
(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party

Answer

(a) Advantage: If the party follows the footsteps of the party president, there will be discipline and unity within the party.
Shortcoming: It causes increase in the power of the party president and reduction of inner party democracy.

(b) Advantage: There will be more confidence among the party members and inner democracy will be strengthened.
Shortcoming: Factionalism may increase in the party.

(c) Advantage: This method is more objective and democratic.
Shortcoming: The expected results can not be available despite issuing of whip by the party.

(d) Advantage: It provides new generation to have the benefit of work and experience.
Shortcoming: It encourages retention of conservative or tradition ridden ways by the elders.

6. State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer?
(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.
(b) Split within the Congress party.
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups.
(d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress party.

Answer

(a) It may not be the reason of the defeat of Congress party as there were so many experienced and charismatic leaders in the party.

(b) It was one of the main reasons of the defeat of Congress party because the party had been moving towards its division into two groups. The old leaders had their control over the party who played the role of the king-makers. Indira Gandhi desired to make her own place in the party in the face of the challenge of the old guards.

(c) The Congress suffered setback due to the rise of regional parties like Akali Dal in Punjab and Dravida Munnetra Kazhgam in Madras. Many regional, caste and communal groups had their mobilisation.

(d) There was no unity among non-Congress parties.

(e) There were differences within the Congress party which became clear to all in a short time that was one of the major causes of its defeat.

7. What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?

Answer

The factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s were:
• The Congress found a charismatic leader in Indira Gandhi.
• Indira Gandhi campaigned to implement land reform legislations and land ceiling legislations.
• The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo-Pak war to establish Bangladesh enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
• Socialist slogans like Garibi Hatao became immensely popular.
• She adopted progressive measures such as nationalisation of banks, abolition of the privy purses and privileges of the former rulers of the states.

8. What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?

Answer

Syndicate was a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress. It was led by K. Kamraj, former chief minister of Tamilnadu and the then president of Congress party. It also includes some powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh. It played a vital role in the Congress Party:
• In sixties, Syndicate played a decisive role by installing Lal Bhadur Shastri and later Indira Gandhi as a Prime Minister.
• It played decisive role in Indira Gandhi’s first council of Ministers and formation and implementation of policies.
• After a split, two groups in Congress were created i.e. Congress (O), led by Syndicate and Congress (R), led by Indira Gandhi. Congress (R), won popularity after 1971 and Syndicate lost power and prestige.

9. Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.

Answer

The formal split in Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of nomination of the candidate during presidential elections:
• Despite, Indira Gandhi’s reservations, the Syndicate nominated Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for ensuing Presidential elections.
• Indira Gandhi retaliated the situation by encouraging Mr. V.V. Giri, the then Vice-President, to be nominated as an independent candidate.
• During election, the then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a whip asking all Congress MPs. MLAs to vote for N. Sanjeeva Reddy.
• On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi openly called for a conscience vote to vote the way they want.
• Elections went in favour of V.V. Giri due to this diplomatic effort and N. Sanjeeva Reddy was defeated. This led to formal split in the congress.

10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
“… Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led. … But this … could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology … into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…. During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died
—Sudipta Kaviraj
(a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?
(b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies?
(c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?

Answer

(a) Jawaharlal Nehru led the Congress into federal, democratic and ideological nature whereas Indira Gandhi converted in into highly centralised and undemocaratic party.

(b) Congress party died in the seventies due to changed nature of Congress, the new populist politics turned political ideology into a mere electoral discourage and the use of various slogans never meant to be translated into government policies
 i. e. electoral victories of 1970s.

(c) The change in the Congress party affected other political parties also as they formed SVD (Samyukt Vidhayak Dal) in the form of coalitions and grand alliance.
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