NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 4 Human Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 4 Human Development Fundamentals of Human Geography

Exercises

Page No: 28

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following best describes development?
(a) an increase in size
(b) a constant in size 
(c) a positive change in quality
(d) a simple change in the quality
► (c) a positive change in quality

(ii) Which one of the following scholars introduced the concept of Human Development?
(a) Prof. Amartya Sen
(b) Ellen C. Semple 
(c) Dr Mahabub-ul-Haq
(d) Ratzel
► (c) Dr Mahabub-ul-Haq

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are the three basic areas of human development?

Answer

The three basic areas of human development are:
• Access to resources
• Health 
• Education

(ii) Name the four main components of human development?

Answer

The four main components of human development are:
• Equity
• Sustainability
• Productivity
• Empowerment

(iii) How are countries classified on the basis of human development index?

Answer

Countries are classified into three groups on the basis of human development index:

• Countries with High Index value: Countries who have a score of above 0.8 in HDI. This group includes 57 countries.

• Countries with Medium Index value: Countries who have a score between 0.5 upto 0.799 in HDI. This group includes 88 countries.

• Countries with Low Index value: Countries who have a score of below 0.5 in HDI. This group includes 32 countries.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) What do you understand by the term human development?

Answer

• The concept of human development was introduced by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq.  Dr Haq has
described human development as development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives. 

• People are central to all development under this concept. These choices are not fixed but keep on changing. 

• The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives. 

• A meaningful life is not just a long one. It must be a life with some purpose. 

• This means that people must be healthy, be able to develop their talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goals.

(ii) What do equity and sustainability refer to within the concept of human development?

Answer

Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.

Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations.


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