NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building

Here you will find Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building Class 12 Political Science NCERT Solutions which is a part of Politics in India since Independence textbook. These NCERT Solutions for Class 12 are accurate and detailed which can be helpful in completing homework on time. These will help you in improving the marks in the examinations and have edge over your classmates.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Challenges of Nation Building

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Challenges of Nation Building


Exercise 

Page No. 24

1. Which among the following statements about the Partition is incorrect?
(a) Partition of India was the outcome of the “two-nation theory.”
(b) Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
(c) East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
(d) The scheme of Partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.
► (d) The scheme of Partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.

2. Match the principles with the instances:

(a) Mapping of boundaries on religious grounds i. Pakistan and Bangladesh
(b) Mapping of boundaries on grounds of different languages ii. India and Pakistan
(c) Demarcating boundaries within a country by geographical zones iii. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
(d) Demarcating boundaries within a country on administrative and political grounds iv. Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand

Answer

(a) Mapping of boundaries on religious grounds ii. India and Pakistan
(b) Mapping of boundaries on grounds of different languages i. Pakistan and Bangladesh
(c) Demarcating boundaries within a country by geographical zones iv. Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
(d) Demarcating boundaries within a country on administrative and political grounds iii. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh

3. Take a current political map of India (showing outlines of states) and mark the location of the following Princely States.
(a) Junagadh
(b) Manipur
(c) Mysore
(d) Gwalior

Answer

4. Here are two opinions –
Bismay: “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.”
Inderpreet: “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.”
What is your own opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts?

Answer

The integration of the native states was done in a democratic way. There were 565 states. Some of the rulers had expressed their unwillingness to join the Indian Union however most of the public opinion were in the favour of integration of the states with the Indian Union. The forceful integration helped in the expansion of democracy all over the country because princely states never enjoyed their political rights and also secured security aspects of India.

5. Read the following very different statements made in August 1947 –
“Today you have worn on your heads a crown of thorns. The seat of power is a nasty thing. You have to remain ever wakeful on that seat…. you have to be more humble and forbearing…now there will be no end to your being tested.” — M.K GANDHI
“…India will awake to a life of freedom….we step out from the old to the new…we end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity…” — JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
Spell out the agenda of nation building that flows from these two statements. Which one appeals more to you and why?

Answer

These two statements focus on the agenda of secularism, democracy, sovereignty and freedom. These Principles pave the way of real development and prosperity of our country. The first statement appeals to me more than the second one because it inspires the countrymen to remain awake alert as it is not the end of our struggle but a new beginning of nation building.

6. What are the reasons being used by Nehru for keeping India secular? Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental? Or were there some prudential reasons as well?

Answer

Reasons for keeping India secular:
• After the partition, all the Muslims did not leave India and stayed as a minority. Nehru wanted to dealt them with this minority in a dignified and civilised manner. 
• He wanted to give them security and the rights of citizens in a democratic State.

No, The reasons for secular India were neither ethical nor sentimental but prudential as India’s secularism cherished long term principles like equality, liberty and fraternity.

7. Bring out two major differences between the challenge of nation building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of Independence.

Answer

The two major differences between eastern (Bengal) and Western (Punjab) regions can be summed up as:
• There was no single belt of Muslim majority areas in British India. There were two areas of concentration, one in the west and one in the east.. Hence, it was decided that new country Pakistan will comprise two territories i.e. West and East Pakistan.
• Secondly, there was a problem of minorities on both sides of border (East and West). Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs in areas of Pakistan and Muslims on the Indian side of Punjab and Bengal found themselves trapped with no option except to leave their homes.
• Third, two of the Muslim majority provinces of British India, Punjab and Bengal, had very large areas where the non-Muslims were in majority. Eventually it was decided that these two provinces would be bifurcated according to the religious majority at the district or even lower level.
(Write any two)

8. What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission? What was its most salient recommendation?

Answer

The State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1953 by central government to look into the question of redrawing of boundaries of state:
• The commission evolved that states’ boundaries should reflect the boundaries of different languages to accommodate linguistic diversity.
• The State Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956 which resulted the creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.
• Its most salient recommendation was the formation of linguistic states i.e. to reorganise states on the basis of accommodation of their languages to prepare a uniform base for the nation.

9. It is said that the nation is to a large extent an “ imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.

Answer

The features that make India a nation are:
• India is a secular country where people follow different cultures and religions and speak different languages. They are recognised as a nation of unity in diversity with common faith and beliefs.
• Political aspiration ensures democratic setup. It is based on parliamentary form of government.
• India’s imaginations established a welfare state on the principle of equality. For the purpose it provides special protection to socially disadvantaged groups and cultural communities.

10. Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
“In the history of nation-building only the Soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There too, a sense of unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale – geographic as well as demographic – was comparably massive. The raw material the state had to work with was equally unpropitious: a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease.” — RAMACHANDRA GUHA
(a) List the commonalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.
(b) The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities?
(c) In retrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why?

Answer

(a) Communalities between India and Soviet Union were :
(i) Both the nations were shaped on linguistic basis.
(ii) To promote welfare motives, the economic and technological developments took place in both
the countries.
(iii) In both the nations states were divided on the grounds of geographical boundary and strength of populations

(b) Dissimilarities between the two experiments:
(i) Soviet Union was divided into 15 independent republics to be disintegrated.
(ii) India maintained its unity and integrity even among diversified nature of states and peoples

(c) The Indian experiment worked better to promote linguistic and cultural plurality without affecting unity and integrity of the nation.
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