NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 11 Paths to Modernisation History

Page No: 254


Answer in brief

1. What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly?


Major developments were:
(i) Peasants were not allowed to carry arms, only samurai could carry swords now.
(ii) Disarmament of the peasants helped in establish peace and prosperity.
(iii) Growth of population led to the growth of commercial economy.
(iv) The growth of precious  metals restricted.
(v) Theater and arts were patronised in towns.
(vi) People developed reading habits.
(vii) Land surveys were made.

2. Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed.


As the Japanese became affluent, new ideas came into being. The old patriarchal system begun to break. The system demanded new style of domestic goods and new types of houses. The concept of nuclear family came into being.

3. How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenge posed by the Western powers?


The Qing dynasty could not meet the challenges posed by the western powers. They utterly failed. The Qing dynasty also demanded change in the country. But they also failed in this endeavour.

4. What were Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles?


The Three principles were:
(i) Nationalism
(ii) Democracy
(iii) Socialism

Answer in Short Essay

5. Did Japan’s policy of rapid industrialisation lead to wars with its neighbours and destruction of the environment?


Yes,it is true because:
(i) Colonies were begun to considered sources of raw material.At last acquiring more colonies led to wars among different nationals.
(ii) It led to the rapid exploitation of natural resources.

6. Do you think that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success?


Yes , Mao Zedong and the Communist Part of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success. In 1935, Mao Zedong formed a Communist front against Japan. He thought that his struggle against Japan would popularize him and also make his mass movement more effective. But Chiang did not accept his proposal. Mao continued his struggle against Japan until he succeeded.
In 1930, Mao Zedong became the chairperson of the council of peasant workers and began to work underground. He defeated Chiang’s army four times. But in the fifth attack he was under pressure that he planned and implemented the Long March. They covered 600 miles in 368 days and arrived in Shensi and Kansu, the communists reached there.
Chiang Kai-shek was worried about increasing power of Mao Zedong. He did not want to work with him. After a great difficulty he was ready to stand by Mao against by Moa against Japan. When the war ended, Mao put a proposal of a coalition government before Chiang. But Chiang did not accept it. Mao continued with his struggle. In 1949, Chiang escaped to Farmosa (Taiwan) to seek asylum there. Mao Zedong was elected the chairman of the Chinese government. He held this office till his death.
After the death of Sun Yat-Sen in 1925, the Guomindang was headed by Chiang-Kai-Shek. Before it the communist part of China had been established in1921. Though he strengthen the rule of the Guomindang, yet he took no steps to achieve the three revolutionary objectives of Sun-Yet-Sen.

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