NCERT Exemplar Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources Solutions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources covers all the important questions and answers as well as advanced level questions. It helps in learning about the natural resources, soil erosion, greenhouse gasses, acid rain, water pollution, rainwater harvesting, greenhouse effect, atmosphere, conservation of rain, acid rain and smog.

The NCERT Exemplar solutions for class 9 science is very important in the examination. NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources is provided by our experts. They prepared the best solutions which help the students in understanding the solutions in an easy way. This chapters also covers the other topics like Soil Erosion, wrong agricultural practices, immediate condensation, rainfall pattern, pollution of water and soil, deforestation, afforestation and conservation of natural resources.

Chapter Name

Chapter 14 Natural Resources

Book Title

NCERT Exemplar for Class 9 Science

Related Study

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
  • Revision Notes for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
  • MCQ for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
  • Important Questions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

Topics Covered

  • MCQ
  • Short Answers Questions
  • Long Answers Questions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Science

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which one is an oil yielding plant among the following?
(a) Lentil
(b) Sunflower
(c) Cauliflower
(d) Hibiscus


(b) Sunflower

Lentils are pulse yielding plants. Cauliflower is a vegetable and hibiscus is a flower. Sunflower is used to make oil.

2. Which one is not a source of carbohydrate?
(a) Rice
(b) Millets
(c) Sorghum
(d) Gram


(d) Gram

Rice, millets and sorghum has carbohydrates in them as a major source of energy. Whereas gram is a dicotyledonous seed and is rich in proteins.

3. Find out the wrong statement from the following :
(a) White revolution is meant for increase in milk production
(b) Blue revolution is meant for increase in fish production
(c) Increasing food production without compromising with environmental quality is called as sustainable agriculture
(d) None of the above


(d) None of the above

4. To solve the food problem of the country, which among the following is necessary?
(a) Increased production and storage of food grains
(b) Easy access of people to the food grain
(c) People should have money to purchase the grains
(d) All of the above


(d) All of the above

5. Find out the correct sentence :
(i) Hybridisation means crossing between genetically dissimilar plants
(ii) Cross between two varieties is called as inter- specific hybridisation
(iii) Introducing genes of desired character into a plant gives genetically modified crop
(iv) Cross between plants of two species is called as inter-varietal hybridisation
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (ii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (iii) and (iv)


(a) (i) and (iii)

6. Weeds affect the crop plants by :
(a) killing of plants in field before they grow
(b) dominating the plants to grow
(c) competing for various resources of crops (plants) causing low availability of nutrients
(d) All of the above


(c) competing for various resources of crops (plants) causing low availability of nutrients

Few weeds are poisonous but they do not affect the crop plant. Weeds compete for the nutrients and water available in the soil. This makes the crop plant devoid of nutrients eventually leading to decrease of the crop yield.

7. Which one of the following species of honey bee is an Italian species?
(a) Apis dorsata
(b) Apis florae
(c) Apis cerana indica
(d) Apis mellifera


(d) Apis mellifera

8. Find out the correct sentence about manure :
(i) Manure contains large quantities of organic matter and small quantities of nutrients.
(ii) It increases the water holding capacity of sandy soil.
(iii) It helps in draining out of excess of water from clayey soil.
(iv) Its excessive use pollutes environment because it is made of animal excretory waste.
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (iii) and (iv)


(b) (i) and (ii)

9. Cattle husbandry is done for the following purposes :
(i) Milk production
(ii) Agricultural work
(iii) Meat production
(iv) Egg production
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(c) (iii) and (iv)
(d) (i) and (iv)


(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)

Cattle husbandry is done for the purpose of milk production, agricultural work and meat production. Poultry farming is done for egg production.

10. Which of the following are Indian cattle?
(i) Bos indicus
(ii) Bos domestics
(iii) Bos bubalis
(iv) Bos vulgaris
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (iii) and (iv)


(a) (i) and (iii)

Bos domestica is found in Africa and Bos vulgaris does not belong to Bos family.

11. Which of the following are exotic breeds?
(i) Brawn
(ii) Jersey
(iii) Brown Swiss
(iv) Jersey Swiss
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (iv)


(b) (ii) and (iii)

12. Poultry farming is undertaken to raise following :
(i) Egg production
(ii) Feather production
(iii) Chicken meat
(iv) Milk production
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (iii) and (iv)


(a) (i) and (iii)

Hens do not produce milk and they are not reared for the purpose of feathers.

13. Poultry fowl are susceptible to the following pathogens:
(a) Viruses
(b) Bacteria
(c) Fungi
(d) All of these


(d) All of these

Viruses, bacteria and fungi cause diseases in poultry.

14. Which one of the following fishes is a surface feeder?
(a) Rohus
(b) Mrigals
(c) Common carps
(d) Catlas


(d) Catlas

15. Animal husbandry is the scientific management of :
(i) animal breeding
(ii) culture of animals
(iii) animal livestock
(iv) rearing of animals
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iv)
(d) (i), (iii) and (iv)


(d) (i), (iii) and (iv)

16. Which one of the following nutrients is not available in fertilizers?
(a) Nitrogen
(b) Phosphorus
(c) Iron
(d) Potassium


(c) Iron

Plants obtain iron from the soil. There is no fertilizer that can provide iron for the plants.

17. Preventive and control measures adopted for the storage of grains include :
(a) strict cleaning
(b) proper disjoining
(c) fumigation
(d) All of these


(d) All of these

Short Answer Questions

18. Match the column A with the column B


Column (A)


Column (B)




Middle – zone – feeders




Bottom feeders




Surface feeders


Fish farming


Culture fishery




(a) Catla

(ii) Surface feeders

(b) Rohu

(iii) Middle –zone feeders

(c) Mrigal

(i) Bottom feeders

(d) Fish farming

(iv) Culture fishery

19. Fill in the blanks :
(a) Pigeon pea is a good source of _____
(b) Berseem is an important _____ crop.
(c) The crops which are grown in rainy season are called _____ crops.
(d) _____ are rich in vitamins.
(e) _____ crop grows in winter season.


(a) protein

(b) fodder

(c) kharif

(d) Vegetable

(e) Rabi

20. What is a GM crop? Name any one such crop which is grown in India.


Those crops which have been developed by the introduction of a new gene with a desired trait from a bacterium to modify/improve the crop’s original characters are called genetically modified crops (GM) crops.
Example: BT cotton which is made insect resistant by introducing a new gene from a bacteria.

21. List out some useful traits in improved crop.


Some useful traits in improved crop are:

  1. Yield is improved to a high level.
  2. Better nutritional quality.
  3. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
  4. Disease resistance is developed.
  5. Adaptabilities were improved in the crop.
  6. Desired agronomic characteristics were developed. e.g. improved shelf life, more pulpiness, seedless, etc.

22. Why is organic matter important for crop production?


The importance of organic matter for crop production are :

  1. It helps in the improvement of soil fertility.
  2. It enhances soil structure and porosity in soil.
  3. It increases water holding capabilities in sand cultivation.
  4. Organic matter also helps in improving drainage.
  5. Water logging problems in clay soil will also be improved.

23. Why is excess use of fertilizers detrimental for environment?


Excessive of fertilizers causes environmental pollution because when used in excess quantities, their residual and unused amounts will pollute air, water and soil.This can result in the development of pollution by contaminating water, air, and soil present in the surrounding.

24. Give one word for the following :
(a) Farming without the use of chemicals as fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides is known as _____
(b) Growing of wheat and groundnut on the same field is called as _____
(c) Planting soyabean and maize in alternate rows in the same field is called as _____
(d) Growing different crops on a piece of land in pre- planned succession is known as _____
(e) Xanthium and Parthenium are commonly known as _____
(f) Causal organism of any disease is called as _____


(a) Farming without the use of chemicals as fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides is known as organic farming.

(b) Growing of wheat and groundnut on the same field is called as mixed cropping.

(c) Planting soybean and maize in alternate rows in the same field is called intercropping.

(d) Growing different crops on a piece of land in pre-planned succession is known as crop rotation.

(e) Xanthium and Parthenium are commonly known as weeds.

(f) The causal organism of any disease is called pathogen.

25. Match the following A and B :


Column (A)


Column (B)


Cattle used for tilling and carting


Local breed of cattle animals


Indian breed of chicken




Sahiwal, Red Sindhi


Milk producing female






Chicken better fed fro obtaining meat






(a) Cattle used for tilling and carting

(iii) Drought animals

(b) Indian breed of chicken

(v) Aseel

(c) Sahiwal, Red Sindhi

(iv) Local breed of cattle

(d) Milch

(i) Milk producing female

(e) Chicken better fed for obtaining

(ii) Broiler

26. If there is low rainfall in a village throughout the year, what measures will you suggest to the farmers for better cropping ?


The village needs to take necessary measure responsible for water conservation. Some suggestions are:

  1. Cultivation of drought resistant and early maturing varieties of crops.
  2. Use of organic manure and humus increases the water holding capacity of soil for longer duration.
  3. Constructing short canals from rivers.
  4. Building rain water storage tanks.

27. Group the following and tabulate them as energy yielding, protein yielding, oil yielding and fodder crop. Wheat, rice, berseem, maize, gram, oat, pigeon gram, Sudan grass, lentil, soyabean, groundnut, castor and mustard.


  1. Energy yielding—wheat, rice, maize
  2. Protein yielding—gram, pigeon gram, lentil, soybean
  3. Oil yielding—groundnut, castor, mustard, soybean
  4. Fodder crops—barseem, oat, sudan grass

28. Define the term hybridization and photoperiod.


  • Hybridization refers to the crossing between genetically dissimilar organisms to produce a hybrid crop consisting of two different traits.
  • Photoperiod is the duration of sunlight which is available to the plant. This affects growth of plant, flowering, and maturation of crops.

29. Fill in the blanks :
(a) Photoperiod affect the _____
(b) Kharif crops are cultivated from _____ to _____
(c) Rabi crops are cultivated from _____ to_____
(d) Paddy, maize, green gram and black gram are _____ crops.
(e) Wheat, gram, pea, mustard are _____ crops.


(a) flowering in plants
(b) June to October
(c) November to April
(d) Kharif
(e) Rabi

30. Cultivation practices and crop yield are related to environmental condition. Explain.


Various crops need different climatic conditions for the growth such as temperature, photoperiod and water. Some of the crops grown in the rainy season are called Kharif and the crops grown in winter are called Rabi crops. This shows that the cultivation requirements and environmental conditions differ for all variety of crops.

31. Fill in the blanks :
(a) A total of _____ nutrients are essential to plants.
(b) _____ and _____ are supplied by air to plants.
(c) _____ is supplied by water to plants.
(d) Soil supply ____ nutrients to plants.
(e) _____ nutrients are required in large quantity and called as _____
(f) _____ nutrients are needed in small quantity for plants and are called _____


(a) A total of 16 nutrients are essential to plants.

(b) Carbon dioxide and oxygen are supplied by air to plants.

(c) Hydrogen is supplied by water to plants.

(d) Soil supply 13 nutrients to plants.

(e) 6 nutrients are required in large quantity and called macronutrients.

(f) 7 nutrients are needed in small quantity for plants and are called micronutrients.

32. Differentiate between compost and vermicompost.


Compost formation is the process in which farm waste materials like livestock excreta, vegetable wastes, animal refuse, domestic waste, straw, eradicated weeds are decomposed and used as manure while Vermicompost is the compost prepared from organic matter by using earthworm which hastens the process of decomposition.

33. Arrange these statements in correct sequence of preparation of green manure.
(a) Green plants are decomposed in soil.
(b) Green plants are cultivated for preparing manure or crop plant parts are used.
(c) Plants are ploughed and mixed into the soil.
(d) After decomposition it becomes green manure.


The correct sequence of preparation of green manure is as follows:

(b) Green plants are cultivated for preparing manure or crop plant parts are used.

(c) Plants are ploughed and mixed into the soil.

(a) Green plants are decomposed in soil.

(d) After decomposition it becomes green manure.

34. An Italian bee variety A. mellifera has been introduced in India for honey production. Write about its merits over other varieties.


The merits of Italian bee variety (A. mellifera) are as follows :

  • It is basically docile and stings rarely.
  • It has high honey collection capacity.
  • It stays in given bee-hive for long periods.
  • It breeds well and has no difficulties.

35. In agricultural practices, higher input gives higher yield. Discuss, how?


In agricultural practices, higher input gives higher yield. This means higher money input to raise the yield. Financial conditions of the farmers allow them to take up different farming practices and technologies. The farmer’s purchasing capacity for input decides cropping system and production practices.

Long Answer Questions

36. Discuss the role of hybridisation in crop improvement.


Hybridization refers to the crossing of genetically two dissimilar plants. Various types of hybridisation methods are be Inter-varietal, intra-varietal, inter- specific, and inter-generic. To obtain a new crop having all the desired characters of both the crops, the crops with desired characters are selected and cross breeding is done. This method of hybridisation improves crops with respect to yield, disease resistance, pest resistance etc.

37. Define :
(i) Vermicompost
(ii) Green manure
(iii) Bio-fertilizer


    (i) Vermicomposts: Compost is a type of manure which is rich in organic matter and nutrients. Vermicompost is the compost prepared by using earthworms to hasten the process of decomposition of plantsand animals refuse.

    (ii) Green manures: Green manure is the manure prepared by decomposing green plants in field itself.
    For example: sun hemp is grown in fields, mulched by ploughing and allowed to decompose in field for the preparation of green manure.

    (iii) Bio-fertilizers: Living organisms which are used as fertilizer to supply the nutrients to plants, are called as biofertilizers.
    For example, blue green algae, which fix nitrogen in soil, rice fields, are called as biofertilizer.

    These methods are highly beneficial for productivity and are environment friendly in nature.

    38. Discuss various methods for weed control.


    The various modes of controlling weeds are:

    1. Hand pulling
    2. Mechanical removal
    3. Proper seedling process
    4. Timely sowing of crops
    5. Intercropping and crop rotation
    6. Use of herbicides

    39. Differentiate between the following :
    (i) Capture fishery and Culture fishery
    (ii) Mixed cropping and Inter cropping
    (iii) Bee-keeping and Poultry farming


    (i) Capture fishery is traditional fishing where a fisherman catches the fishes from natural resources like sea and rives. Culture fishery is the one where the fishes are obtained reared for the commercial purpose.

    (ii) The method of growing two or more crops in a single field is known as mixed cropping. Inter cropping is a type of mixed cropping where two or more crops are grown in a single field in a definite patterns.

    (iii) Bee-keeping is the practice through which yielding of honey is focused whereas poultry farming is a practice which is done to raise the domestic fowl for the production of eggs and meat.

    40. Give the merits and demerits of fish culture.


    Merits of Fish Culture :

    1. Profit earning mode of employment when pain is less than cattle rearing
    2. Desired fishes can be obtained in large amount in small area.
    3. Improved food quality as fishes are the cheap source of proteins.
    4. Aquaculture has proved to safe and good source of employment
    5. Produces healthy and disease free fishes
    6. High yield despite of small area covered
    7. The natural food chain is not hampered with the increase in population.

    Demerits of Fish Culture :

    1. It is threat to biodiversity.
    2. Only economically valued fishes are cultured.
    3. Continuous supply of freshwater is required.
    4. Maintenance of natural habitat is desired.
    5. Uses of distinct disinfectants are required for diverse variety of fishes.
    6. Only desired varieties of fishes are reared.

    41. What do you understand by composite fish culture?


    Composite fish culture is the method to culture five or six species, both indigenous and exotic, together in a single fishpond. The species are so selected that they do not compete among themselves for food, i.e. they havedifferent types of food habits.
    For example: Catlas are surface feeders, Rohu is middle zone feeder and Mrigals and common carps are bottom feeders.

    42. Why bee-keeping should be done in good pasturage?


    Bee-keeping is known as apiculture. To produce honey, bees need quality nectar. A good pasturage consists of plenty of flowers which can be used by bees to get quality nectar. This increases the quality as well as the quantity of the bees. If the bees are confined to a single variety of flower for nectar, the honey quality will have similar taste and consistency. Few plants like banana, peach, citrus, guava, sunflower, berries mango plum, etc. are good sources of both nectar and pollen.

    43. Write the modes by which insects affect the crop yield.


    There are various parts of plant bodies for insects which can be leaves, flowers, fruits and stems. They cause damage to the plant body and even to the fruits. Thus, this leads to heavy loss for farmers and cultivators. The various ways through which insects can damage crops are as follows :

    1. Cutting: Insects cut plant parts such as leaves, fruits, flowers etc. which damages the plant, and this in turn results in decreased rate of photosynthesis, decreased flower and decrease in the production of seeds.
    2. Borers: Some pests bore holes in specific plant parts and start living inside. These pestsutilize plant nutrients and food which results in the decrease in the yield.
    3. Suckers: Few pests suck cell sap by using their proboscis. This results in adverse effect on plant. Cutting off plant parts through biting and chewing of stems and leaves of a plant.
    4. Few insects feed on the secondary products deposited on tree trunk or insects living on plant stems creating damage to the surface. They could also act as disease vectors transmitting to the plants and further to consumers. This will lead to the production of unhealthy crop.
    5. The presence of insects on plant bodies also attracts population of birds causing damage to agriculture. Insects like bees have a tendency to fly surrounding the ripened fruits.

    44. Discuss why pesticides are used in very accurate concentration and in very appropriate manner?

    Pesticides are used in very accurate concentration and in a very appropriate manner. 
    The various environmental impacts if used excessively are:
    1. Water pollution: The runoff water from the fields through rain or the drainage system of field causes harm to the surrounding. Mixing of this water to the nearby water bodies can affect the aquatic ecosystem and the edible source of water for the society. This could be hazardous for human health.
    2. Air pollution: When the suspended particles are carried away by wind to other areas it contributes in the contamination of those areas as well. This contamination could lead to air borne diseases.
    3. Soil pollution: The pesticide works has its adverse effects on the biodiversity of soil as well as in depleting its nourishment capability. The accumulation of chemical substances and the percolated or leached particles inside the soil of distance areas can lead to various diseases affecting the other habitats.
    4. Biodiversity: The affected species can develop resistance through the repeated application of pesticides. Also, the degree of chemical toxin present in the pesticide can kill other microorganisms and animals (insects, birds, and grazing animals) found in the farmland.
    5. Human health hazards: Wide ranges of impacts were observed including both short term and long term disasters. The type of sufferings depends on the type of pesticide usage. They can be acute dangers (such as skin and eye allergies, headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, etc.) and chronic symptoms (such as cancer, reproductive damage, endocrine disruption, etc.).

    45. Name two types of animal feed and write their functions.


    Livestock feeds are the feeds which provide the basic nutrients required by the animals along with the various nutrient supplements beneficial for their growth and development. These supplements include nutrients like macro, micro, minerals, vitamins, proteins, and amino acids.

    The two types of animal feeds are: 

    1. Roughage: Roughage is provided by husk, grass and chopped leaves. Roughage gives complete nourishment to animals and it also aids proper digestion in animals.
    2. Concentrates: These are prepared as per the requirement of particular cattle. They are rich in proteins and minerals. Varieties of concentrates are available in the market.
    The only difference in between roughage and concentrates is the feeding quantity. Concentrates being compressed with equivalent source of energy and nutrients, it is provided in a maintained quantity. However, roughages comprising of more indigestible fibrous elements are provided in good amount.

    46. What would happen if poultry birds are larger in size and have no summer adaptation capacity? In order to get small sized poultry birds, having summer adaptability, what method will be employed?


    Egg production is directly influenced by the temperature maintenance of poultry birds. Therefore, larger size and no adaptability to summer may cause a decline in egg production. Therefore, to obtain smaller sized birds with higher summer adaptability capabilities, cross breeding of poultry birds are done to obtain the smaller size and higher summer adaptability. This will also help in better housing and low feed management of poultry farm birds.

    47. Suggest some preventive measures for the diseases of poultry birds.


    Poultry birds usually suffer from various bacterial and viral diseases. When such diseases turn out to be epidemic, then they are known as bird flu. Some of the preventive measures which could be implied on poultry farms are as follows :

    1. Regular cleaning of poultry farms.
    2. Spraying disinfectants at regular intervals.
    3. Regulation on proper food content and distribution.
    4. Maintaining clean water supply.
    5. Timely vaccination of birds.
    6. Temperature maintenance of the farm units.
    7. Poultry farm should be of proper land area and the population should not be in excess.

    48. Figure 15.1 shows the two crop fields [Plots A and B] have been treated by manures and chemical fertilizers respectively, keeping other environmental factors same. Observe the graph and answer the following questions.
    (a) Why does plot B show sudden increase and then gradual decrease in yield?
    (b) Why is the highest peak in plot A graph slightly delayed?
    (c) What is the reason for the different pattern of the two graphs?


    (a) There is sudden increase in yield with addition of chemical fertilizer. This happens due to release of nutrients N, P, Ketc. in high quantity. The gradual decline may be due to continuous use and high quantity of chemicals. This kills the useful microbes necessary for replenishing the organic matter in the soil. This decreases the soil fertility.

    (b) Manures supply small quantities of nutrients to the soil slowly. This is because they contains large amounts of organic matter. Manures increase the soil fertility continuously as they enrich the soil with nutrients.

    (c) The difference in the two graphs indicates that the use of manure is beneficial as the yield tends to remain high. In case of Plot B it is seen that the chemical fertilizers can cause various problems if used continuously for long time. Loss of microbial activity reduces the decomposition of organic matter and as a result soil fertility is lost which in turn affects the yield.

    49. Complete the crossword puzzle (figure):

    1. Oil yielding plant (9)
    3. Crop grown in winter season (4)
    5. Fixed by Rhizobium (8)
    9. Common honeybee (4)
    2. Animal feed (6)
    4. A micronutrient (5)
    6. Unwanted plant in crop fields (4)
    7. An exotic breed of chicken (7)
    8. Bottom feeders in fish pond (7)
    10. A marine fish (4)


    1. Sunflower
    3. Rabi
    5. Nitrogen
    9. Apis
    2. Fodder
    4. Boron
    6. Weed
    8. Mrigals
    10. Tuna

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