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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication

Chapter 10 Transport and Communication NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography will help you in instantly recollect your ideas and shape your answers. These NCERT Solutions will let you explore answers of those questions which you're finding difficult to solve. Revision Notes for Chapter 10 Transport and Communication which will prepare yourself well before examinations.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication


1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) In how many zones has the Indian Railways system been divided?
(a) 9
(b) 12
(c) 16
(d) 14
► (c) 16

(ii) On which river and between which two places does the National Water Way No. 1 lie?
(a) The Brahmaputra, Sadiya-Dhubri
(b) The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad
(c) West Coast Canal, Kottapuram to Kollam
► (b) The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad

(iii) In which of the following year, the first radio programme was broadcast?
(a) 1911
(b) 1936
(c) 1927
(d) 1923
► (d) 1923

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.

Answer

Transport conveys the basic activity of mobility.  It is a tertiary activity. The three major modes of
transportation are aviation, land transport, which includes road, rail and off-road transport, and ship transport.

(ii) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.

Answer

Advantages of pipeline transportation:

• These are the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long distances.
• Even solids can also be transported by pipelines after converting them into slurry.
• It involves low energy consumption.

Disadvantages of pipeline transportation:

• Its capacity cannot be increased once it is laid.
• Maintenance of the security of pipeline is difficult.
• The detection of leakage is also difficult.
• All solid substances cannot be transported.

(iii) What do you mean by ‘communication’?

Answer

Communication is an activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages or information by speech, visual, writing or behaviour.

(iv) Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian in the air transport of India.

Answer

Air transport is the fastest means of movement from one place to the other. It has reduced distances by minimising the travel time. It is essential for a vast country like India, where distances are large and the terrain and climatic conditions are diverse.

Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 but its real development took place in post-Independent period. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian Air Space. The authority manages 125 airports. In 2005, it carried 12.2 million passengers and 4.8 lakh metric tonnes of cargo. In 2005, domestic movement by Indian Airlines involved 24.3 million passengers and 20 lakh metric tonnes of cargo.

Indian airlines were incorporated in 1953. Now Indian Airlines is known as ‘Indian’. The country’s largest state-owned domestic carrier, Indian Airlines dropped the word ‘Airlines’ from its name and is known as ‘Indian’ with effect from December 8, 2005.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Which are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.

Answer

The chief means of transportation in India are Land, Water and Air. The use of transport and communication depends upon our need to move things from place of their availability to the place of their use.

The factors affecting their development:

• Land transport comprises road, rail and pipeline. India has one of the second largest road networks
in the world with a total length of about 56 lakh km. Roads play an important role in linking the interior areas with the markets and urban centres. With the economic and technological development, metalled roads and railways were developed to move large volume of goods and people from one place to another. Indian Railways facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of the economy. Railway network is relatively less dense in the hill states, north eastern states, central parts of India and Rajasthan. Ropeways, cableways and pipelines were devised to cater to the demands of transporting specific goods under special circumstances.

• Water transport is an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India. It is the cheapest means of transport and is most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky material. It is also beneficial for engaging in international trade through long and indented coastline of India. Inland waterway also links the different regions within the country efficiently. It is the cheapest means for bulky cargo.

• Air transport has reduced distances by minimising the travel time. It is essential for a vast country like India, where distances are large and the terrain and climatic conditions are diverse.

(ii) Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.

Answer

Indian railways network is one of the longest in the world. It facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of economy. Indian Railway was introduced in 1853, when a line was constructed from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 km.

It is the largest government undertaking in the countiy. Its network length is 63,221 km. Its very large size puts lots of pressure on a centralized railway management system. Thus, in India, the railway system has been divided into sixteen zones. Indian Railways has launched extensive programme to convert the metre and narrow gauges to broad gauge. Moreover, steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines. This step has increased the speed as well as the haulage capacity.

The replacement of steam engines run by coal has also improved the environment of the stations. Metro rail has revolutionized the urban transport system in Kolkata and Delhi. Replacement of diesel buses by CNG run vehicles along with introduction of metro is a welcome step towards controlling the air pollution in urban centres.

Areas around towns, raw material producing areas and of plantations and other commercial crops, hill stations and cantonment towns were well-connected by railways from the British colonial era. These were mostly developed for the exploitation of resources. After the Independence of the country, railway routes have been extended to other areas too. The most significant development has been the development of Konkan Railway along the western coast providing a direct link between Mumbai and Mangalore.

Railway continues to remain the main means of transport for the masses. Railway network is relatively less dense in the hill states, north eastern states, central parts of India and Rajasthan.

(iii) Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India.

Answer

The role of roads in the economic development of India:

• Road transport is relatively suitable for shorter distance travel.
• Construction cost and maintenance of roads is cheap.
• Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
• Road transport also supplements the other modes of transportation.
• Perishable commodities like vegetables, fruits and milk are transported more easily and quickly by roads than by railways.
• Roads supplement the ports and airways.


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