NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 International Trade

Chapter 11 International Trade NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography will be useful in scoring good marks in the examinations and complete homework on time. These NCERT Solutions are helpful resources that can help you not only cover the entire syllabus and help in solving the difficulties that lie ahead with ease. Revision Notes for Chapter 11 International Trade will make you understand the topics in most simple manner.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 International Trade

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 International Trade


1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Trade between two countries is termed as
(a) Internal trade
(b) External trade
(c) International trade
(d) Local trade
► (c) International trade

(ii) Which one of the following is a land locked harbour?
(a) Vishakhapatnam
(b) Mumbai
(c) Ennor
(d) Haldia
► (a) Vishakhapatnam

(iii) Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through
(a) Land and sea
(b) Land and air
(c) Sea and air
(d) Sea
► (c) Sea and air

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Mention the characteristics of India’s foreign trade.

Answer

The nature of India’s foreign trade has changed over the years. Though there has been an increase in the total volume of import and export, the value of import continued to be higher than that of exports. The share of agriculture and allied products has declined, whereas, shares of petroleum and crude products and other commodities have increased. In import, there is a steep rise in petroleum products.

(ii) Distinguish between port and harbour.

Answer

Harbour Port
A harbour is an area of sea providing safe entrance to ships. A port is a point on the coast where ships can tie up for anchor.
It protects the ships from waves and storms. Ships load and unload commodities here.
A harbour provides sufficient room for anchorage of ships. A port is connected with a productive hinterland.

(iii) Explain the meaning of hinterland.

Answer

Hinterland is an area which is connected with the port that serves both for imports and for exports. It is a region lying inland from a coast or river.

(iv) Name important items which India imports from different countries.

Answer

Petroleum and petroleum products are the major imports of India. Capital goods are also important items which includes non-electrical machinery, transport equipment, manufacturers of metals and machine tools which India imports from different countries.

(v) Name the ports of India located on the east coast.

Answer

Kolkata, Haldia, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, Ennore, Chennai, Tuticorin are the major ports on the east coast of India.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Describe the composition of export and import trade of India.

Answer

• In export, the share of agriculture and allied products has declined, whereas, shares of petroleum and crude products and other commodities have increased. The shares of ore minerals and manufactured goods have largely remained constant over the years from 2009-10 to 2010-11and 2015-16 to 2016-17. The decline in traditional items is largely due to the tough international competition. Manufacturing sector alone accounted for 73.6 per cent of India’s total value of export in 2016-17.

• In import, there is a steep rise in petroleum products. It is used not only as a fuel but also as an industrial raw material. It indicates the tempo of rising industrialisation and better standard of living. Import of capital goods maintained a steady increase due to rising demand in the export-oriented industrial and domestic sectors. Non-electrical machinery, transport equipment, manufacturers of metals and machine tools were the main items of capital goods. Import of food and allied products declined with a fall in imports of edible oils.

(ii) Write a note on the changing nature of the international trade of India.

Answer

The composition of commodities in India’s international trade has been undergoing change over years.
• The share of agriculture and allied products have declined whereas shares of petroleum and crude products and other commodities have increased.
• The shares of ore minerals and manufactured goods have largely remained constant
• The imports of Petroleum products is increasing.
• There is a decline in the export of traditional items, such as coffee, cashew, etc., though an increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products and sugar, etc.
• The share of manufactured goods has increased in exports.
• The export of engineering goods has increased.
• Share of Gems pearls and ornaments in exports has increased.


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