NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography will help you in analyzing the problems and serve as beneficial tool that can be used to recall various questions any time. Revision Notes for Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources will allow the students to evaluate their learning almost immediately. These NCERT Solutions are curated by the experts in a comprehensive which can be helpful in clearing your doubts instantly.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) In which one of the following States are the major oil fields located?
(a) Assam
(b) Bihar
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Tamil Nadu
► (a) Assam

(ii) At which one of the following places was the first atomic power station started?
(a) Kalpakkam
(b) Narora
(c) Rana Pratap Sagar
(d) Tarapur
► (d) Tarapur

(iii) Which one of the following minerals is known as brown diamond?
(a) Iron
(b) Lignite
(c) Manganese
(d) Mica
► (b) Lignite

(iv) Which one of the following is non-renewable source of energy?
(a) Hydel
(b) Solar
(c) Thermal
(d) Wind power
► (c) Thermal

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Give an account of the distribution of mica in India.


Mica in India is produced in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan followed by Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.

In Jharkhand high quality mica is obtained in a belt extending over a distance of about 150 km, in length and about 22 km, in width in lower Hazaribagh plateau. In Andhra Pradesh. Nellore district produces the best quality mica. In Rajasthan mica belt extends for about 320 kms from Jaipur to Bhilwara and around Udaipur. Mica deposits also occur in Mysore and Hasan districts of Karnataka, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai and Kannyakumari in Tamil Nadu, Alleppey in Kerala, Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Purulia and Bankura in West Bengal.

(ii) What is nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India.


Nuclear power is generated from nuclear fission that is splitting of nucleus of radioactive minerals like Uranium and Thorium. The important nuclear power stations are Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rawatbhata near Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka) and Kakarapara (Gujarat).

(iii) Name non-ferrous metal. Discuss their spatial distribution.


Copper is non-ferrous metal. Copper is an indispensable metal in the electrical industry for making wires, electric motors, transformers and generators.

The Copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan.
Minor producers of Copper are Agnigundala in Guntur District (Andhra Pradesh), Chitradurg and Hasan districts (Karnataka) and South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu).

(iv) What are non-conventional sources of energy?


Non-conventional energy, are sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes. Examples include energy sources like solar, wind, hydro- geothermal and biomass. The non-conventional energy sources will provide more sustained, eco-friendly cheaper energy after the initial cost is taken care of.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Write a detailed note on the Petroleum resources of India.


Crude petroleum consists of hydrocarbons of liquid and gaseous states varying in chemical composition, colour and specific gravity. It is an essential source of energy for all internal combustion engines in automobiles, railways and aircraft. Its numerous by-products are processed in petrochemical industries such as fertiliser, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, medicines.

Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period. Oil exploration and production was systematically taken up after the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was set up in 1956. Till then, the Digboi in Assam was the only oil producing region but the scenario has changed after 1956. In recent years, new oil deposits have been found at the extreme western and eastern parts of the country. In Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran are important oil producing areas. The major oil fields of Gujarat are Ankaleshwar, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba and Lunej. Mumbai High which lies 160 km off Mumbai was discovered in 1973 and production commenced in 1976. Oil and natural gas have been found in exploratory wells in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin on the east coast.

Oil extracted from the wells is crude oil and contains many impurities. It cannot be used directly. It needs to be refined. There are two types of refineries in India: field-based and market-based. Digboi is an example of field-based and Barauni is an example of market-based refinery.

(ii) Write an essay on hydel power in India.


Hydel power is inexhaustible resources in which the potential energy of falling water converted into electricity. In order to produce hydel electricity, high-rise dams are constructed on the river to obstruct the flow of water and thereby collect water in larger reservoirs. The water level rises and in this process the kinetic energy of flowing water gets transformed into potential energy. A quarter of our energy requirement in India is met by hydro power plants. India is 5th globally for installed hydroelectric power capacity.

In India, the first power house was set up at Siva Samudram (Karnataka) on the river Cauvery in 1902. The hydro-electric power plants at Darjeeling and Shivanasamudram were established in 1898 and 1902, respectively. They were among the first in Asia and India has been a dominant player in global hydroelectric power development. India's economically exploitable and viable hydroelectric potential is estimated to be 148,701 MW. An additional 6,780 MW from smaller hydro schemes (with capacities of less than 25 MW) is estimated as exploitable.

The public sector accounts for 92.5% of India's hydroelectric power production. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC), Northeast Electric Power Company (NEEPCO), Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVNL), THDC, and NTPC-Hydro are some of the public sector companies producing hydroelectric power in India.

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