NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography will be useful in expanding student's horizon as it cover variety of questions. It will prepare students to do better during immense pressure and also whether they learned answers properly or not. Revision Notes for Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries will make much easier to memorize topics faster and frame better answers.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Which is not a factor of industrial location?
(a) Market
(b) Capital
(c) Population Density
(d) Power
► (c) Population Density

(ii) The earliest Iron and Steel Company to be established in India was:
(c) Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works
(d) Mysore Iron and Steel Works
► (a) IISCO

(iii) The first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai because:
(a) Mumbai is a port
(b) It is located near cotton growing area
(c) Mumbai was the financial centre
(d) All of the above
► (d) All of the above.

(iv) The nucleus of the Hugli Industrial Region is:
(a) Kolkata-Haora
(b) Kolkata-Rishra
(c) Kolkata-Medinipur
(d) Kolkata-Konnagar
► (a) Kolkata-Haora

(v) Which one of the following is the second largest producer of sugar:
(a) Maharashtra
(c) Punjab
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nadu
► (b) Uttar Pradesh

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Why do you think that the iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country?


The iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country because almost all sectors of the Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure.

(ii) Name the two sectors of the cottage textile industries. How are they different?


The cottage textile industries has two sectors: The handloom sector and powerloom sector. The handloom sector depends upon artisans and local raw materials. Its production is limited. Powerloom sector produces cloth on machines. It produces more than 50 per cent of cloth.

(iii) Why is the sugar industry a seasonal industry?


Sugar industry is a seasonal industry because sugarcane is crushed within 24 hours of its harvesting. Sugarcane cannot be kept in the field in dry season. So it is harvested. The mills work only during the season after the harvest of cane.

(iv) What is the raw material base for the petrochemical industry? Name some of the products of this industry.


Petroleum is the raw material base for petrochemical industry. Its produce are grouped into four sub-groups:
• Polymers
• Synthetic fibres
• Elastomers
• Surfactant intermediate

(v) What is the major impact of Information Technology (IT) revolution in India?


The IT and IT enabled business process outsourcing (ITES- BPO) services continue to be on a robust growth path. Indian software industry has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy. The software industry has surpassed electronic hardware production.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) How did the Swadeshi movement give a major impetus to the cotton textiles industry?


After the first mills were set up in Mumbai and Ahmedabad in the second half of the nineteenth century, the cotton textile industry expanded very rapidly. The number of units increased dramatically. The Swadeshi movement gave a major impetus to the industry as there was a call for boycotting all British made goods in favour of Indian goods. After 1921, with the development of the railway network other cotton textile centres expanded rapidly. In southern India, mills were set up at Coimbatore, Madurai and Bengaluru. In central India Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodara became cotton textile centres. Cotton textile mills were set up at Kanpur based on local investment. Mills were also set up at Kolkata due to its port facilities. The development of hydro-electricity also favoured the location of the cotton textile mills away from the cotton producing areas. The rapid development of this industry in Tamil Nadu is the result of the abundant availability of hydel power for the mills. Lower labour costs at centres like Ujjain, Bharuch, Agra, Hathras, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli also caused industries to be located away from cotton producing area.

(ii) What do you understand by liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation? How have they helped industrial development in India?


The new Industrial Policy was announced in 1991. The major objectives of this policy were to build on the gains already made, correct the distortions or weaknesses that have crept in, maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment and attain international competitiveness.

Within this policy, measures initiated are :
(1) abolition of industrial licensing,
(2) free entry to foreign technology,
(3) foreign investment policy,
(4) access to capital market,
(5) open trade,
(6) abolition of phased manufacturing programme, and
(7) liberalised industrial location programme.

The policy has three main dimensions: liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation.

The industrial licensing system has been abolished for all except six industries related to security, strategic or environmental concerns. The government also has decided to offer a part of the shareholdings in the public enterprises to financial institutions, general public and workers. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been seen as a supplement to the domestic investment for achieving a higher level of economic development.

The industrial policy has been liberalised to attract private investor both domestic and multi-nationals. New sectors like, mining, telecommunications, highway construction and management have been thrown open to private companies. Larger parts of this investment have gone to domestic appliances, finance, services, electronics and electrical equipment, and food and dairy products.

Globalisation means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy. Under this process, goods and services along with capital, labour and resources can move freely from one nation to another.

In the Indian context, this implies:
(1) opening of the economy to foreign direct investment by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economies activity in India;
(2) removing restrictions and obstacles to the entry of multi-national companies in India;
(3) allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaboration in India and also encouraging them to set up joint-ventures abroad;
(4) carrying out massive import liberalisation programmes by switching over from quantitative restrictions to tariffs in the first place, and then bringing down the level of import duties considerably;
(5) instead of a set of export incentives, opting for exchange rate adjustments for promoting export.

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