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Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope Class 12 Geography Notes

Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope Class 12 Geography Notes is an effective method for learning since you can be le to learn a lot within a short time. It will be useful in structuring the chapter and also provides a personal record of what you have learned. NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope Class 12 Geography will be helpful in making entire memorizing process effortless and entertaining.

Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope Class 12 Geography Notes

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope


Nature of Human Geography

• Human geography studies the inter-relationship between the physical environment and socio- cultural environment created by human beings through mutual interaction with each other.

• The elements like houses, villages, cities, road-rail networks, industries etc and all other elements of material culture have been created by human beings using the resources provided by the physical environment.

• While physical environment has been greatly modified by human beings, it has also, in turn, impacted human lives.

Naturalisation of Humans

• Human beings interact with their physical environment with the help of technology. Technology indicates the level of cultural development of society.

• Human beings were able to develop technology after they developed better understanding of natural laws. For example, the understanding of concepts of friction and heat helped us discover fire.

• In the early stages of human adapted to the dictates of Nature because the level of technology was very low and the stage of human social development was also primitive. The type of interaction between primitive human society and strong forces of nature was termed as environmental determinism.

Humanisation of Nature

• With social and cultural development, humans develop better and more efficient technology.

• Humans create possibilities with the resources obtained from the environment. They create cultural landscape. The earlier scholars termed this as possibilism.

• Nature provides opportunities and human being make use of these and slowly nature gets humanised.

• A geographer, Griffith Taylor introduced the concept of Neo Determinism or Stop and Go determinism which is mid way path. The concept states that there is neither a situation of absolute necessity (environmental determinism) nor there is condition of absolute freedom (possibilism). It means that human beings can conquer nature by obeying it.

Human Geography through the Corridors of Time

• The Human Geography is concerned with the process of adaptation, adjustment with and modification of the environment started with the appearance of human beings over the surface of the earth in different ecological niches.

• Earlier there was little interaction between different societies and the knowledge about each other was limited.

• The late fifteenth century witnessed attempts of explorations in Europe and slowly the myths and mysteries about countries and people started to open up.

Fields and Sub-fields of Human Geography

• Human geography is highly inter-disciplinary in nature. It develops close interface with other sister disciplines in social sciences in order to understand and explain human elements on the surface of the earth.

Fields of Human Geography Sub-Fields Interface with Sister Disciplines of Social Sciences
Social Geography - Sociology
Behavioural Geography Psychology
Geography of Social Well-being Welfare Economics
Geography of Leisure Sociology
Cultural Geography Anthropology
Gender Geography Sociology, Anthropology, Women’s Studies
Historical Geography History
Medical Geography Epidemiology
Urban Geography - Urban Studies and Planning
Political Geography - Political Science
Electoral Geography Psephology
Military Geography Military Science
Population Geography - Demography
Settlement Geography - Urban/Rural Planning
Economic Geography - Economics
Geography of Resources Resource Economics
Geography of Agriculture Agricultural Sciences
Geography of Industries Industrial Economics
Geography of Marketing Business Studies, Economics, Commerce
Geography of Tourism Tourism and Travel Management
Geography of International Trade International Trade

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