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Chapter 9 Globalisation Class 12 Political Science Notes

On this page you will get Chapter 9 Globalisation Class 12 Political Science Notes that will be make sure that a student has understood the specifics of every chapter in clear and precise manner. NCERT Revision Notes becomes a vital resource for all the students to self-study from NCERT textbooks carefully. NCERT Solutions for Chapter 9 Globalisation will help the students to recall information with more precision and faster.

Chapter 9 Globalisation Class 12 Political Science Notes

Chapter 9 Globalisation Class 12 Political Science Notes


The Concept of Globalisation

• Globalisation as a concept fundamentally deals with flows. These flows could be of various kinds - ideas moving from one part of the world to another, capital shunted between two or more places, commodities being traded across borders, and people moving in search of better livelihoods to different parts of the world.

• The crucial element is the worldwide inter connectedness which is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows.

• Globalisation is a multi-dimensional concept, it has political, economic and cultural manifestations and  these must be distinguished adequately.

Causes of Globalisation

• Globalisation is not caused by any single factor but technology remains a critical element. 

• The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible by technological advances.

• Interconnection also a major part in Globalisation as any activity like the Bird flu or tsunami is not confined to any particular nation. It does not respect national boundaries.

Political Consequences

• Globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of government to do what they do.

• All over the world, the old ‘welfare state’ is now giving way to a more minimalist state and the market becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.

• Globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to  be the unchallenged basis of political community.

• State capacity has got a boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies  available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens. 

Economic Consequences

• Economic globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries.

• Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe as it has reduced the imposing of restrictions on the imports of one country on another.

• It also draws attention towards the role of JMF and WTO in determining economic policies across the world.

• According to some, economic globalisation is likely to benefit only a small section of the population.

• Advocates of economic globlisation argue that it generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population.

Cultural Consequences

• Globalisation leads to the rise of a uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenisation.

• The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society, and the world begins to look more like the dominant power wishes it to be.

• All cultures accept outside influences all the time. Some external influences are negative because they reduce our choices. But sometimes external influences simply enlarge our choices, and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional.

• While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. This phenomenon is called cultural heterogenisation.

India and Globalisation

• During the colonial period, as a consequence of Britain’s imperial ambitions, India became an exporter of primary goods and raw materials and a consumer of finished goods. After independence,
because of this experience with the British, we decided to make things ourselves rather than relying on others. We also decided not to allow others to export to us so that our own producers could learn to make things.

• In 1991, responding to a financial crisis and to the desire for higher rates of economic growth, India embarked on a programme of economic reforms that has sought increasingly to de-regulate various sectors including trade and foreign investment.

Resistance to Globalisation

• Critics of globalisation make a variety of arguments. Those on the left argue that contemporary globalisation represents a particular phase of global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.

• Politically, critics of globalisation also fear the weakening of the state.

• Economically, they  want a return to self-reliance and protectionism, at least in certain areas of the economy. 

• Culturally, they are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose  their age-old values and ways.

• Anti-globalisation movements too participate in global networks, allying with those who  feel like them in other countries.

• In 1999, at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Ministerial Meeting there were widespread  protests at Seattle alleging unfair trading practices by the economically powerful states. It  was argued that the interests of the developing world were not given sufficient importance  in the evolving global economic system.

• The World Social Forum (WSF) is a global platform bringing together human rights activists, environmentalists, labour, youth and women activists opposed to neo-liberal globalistion.

India and Resistance to Globalisation

• Resistance to globalisation in India has come from different quarters.

• There have been left wing protests to economic liberalisation voiced through political parties as well as through forums like the Indian Social Forum.

• Resistance to globalisation has also come from the political right taking the form of objecting particularly to various cultural influences - ranging from the availability of foreign television channels provided by cable networks, celebration of Valentine’s Day, and westernisation of the dress tastes of girl students in schools and colleges.
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