NCERT Solutions for Class 12: Ch 9 Globalisation Political Science

1. Which of the statements are ‘True’ about globalisation?
(a) Globalisation is purely an economic phenomenon.
(b) Globalisation began in 1991.
(c) Globalisation is the same thing as westernisation.
(d) Globalisation is a multi-dimensional phenomenon.

Answer

(d) Globalisation is a multi-dimensional phenomenon.

2. Which of the statements are ‘True’ about the impact of globalisation?
(a) Globalisation has been uneven in its impact on states and societies.
(ib) Globalisation has had a uniform impact on all states and societies.
(c) The impact of globalisation has been confined to the political sphere.
(d) Globalisation inevitably results in cultural homogeneity.

Answer

(a) Globalisation has been uneven in its impact on states and societies.
(b) Globalisation inevitably results in cultural homogeneity.


3. Which of the statements are ‘True’ about causes of globalisation?
(a) Technology is an important cause of globalisation.
(b) Globalisation is caused by a particular community of people.
(c) Globalisation originated in the US.
(d) Economic interdependence alone causes globalisation.

Answer

(a) Technology is an important cause of globalisation.
(b) It originated in the US.

4. Which statements are ‘true’ about globalisation?
(a) Globalisation is only about movement of commodities.
(b) Globalisation does not involve a conflict of values.
(c) Services are an insignificant part of globalisation.
(d) Globalisation is about worldwide interconnectedness.

Answer

(b) Globalisation does not involve a conflict of values.
(d) Globalisation is about worldwide interconnectedness.

5. Which of the statements are False about globalisation?
(a) Advocates of globalisation argue that it will result in greater economic growth.
(b) Critics of globalisation argue that it will result in greater economic disparity.
(c) Advocates of globalisation argue that it will result in cultural homogenisation.
(d) Critics of globalisation argue that it will result in cultural homogenisation.

Answer

The statements (b) and (d) are false about globalisation.

6. What is worldwide interconnectedness? What are its components?

Answer

Worldwide interconnectedness means that the different countries are interconnected with each other as a result of flows among countries. This contains three components:
1. Capital Flow: It is the flow of resources through loans or business investments among the countries.
2. Trade Flows of Goods: It refers to exchange of goods among countries.
3. Labour Flow: It refers to ‘Brain drain’ by creating favourable conditions for employment.

7. How has technology contributed to globalisation?

Answer

The technology remains a critical element to globalisation. The invention of telegraph, the telephone, and the microchip in more recent times has revolutionised communication between different parts of the world. The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances.

8. Critically evaluate the impact of the changing role of state in the developing countries in the light of globalisation?

Answer

• Globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of government to do what they do.
• All over the world, the old ‘welfare state’ is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens.
• State withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
• The entry and the increased role of multinational companies all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decisions on their own.

9. What are the economic implications of globalisation? How has globalisation impacted on India with regard to this particular dimension?

Answer

Economic aspects of globalisation shapes a large part of the content and direction of contemporary debates surrounding globalisation. Economic globalisation is related to the distribution of economic gains, i.e. who gets the most from globalisation and who gets less, indeed who loses from it.

Positive Implications of Economic Globalisation:
• It involves greater economic flows among various countries.
• It has enhanced trade in commodities among countries.
• The restrictions on the imports and movement of capital have also been reduced.
• This has spread internet and computer related services across national boundaries.

Negative Implications of Economic Globalisation:
• Economic globalisation has created diverse opinion all over the world as to benefit only a small section of society.
• It does not have equality at par the movement of people across the globe i.e. developed countries
have carefully guarded their borders with visa policies to ensure job security to their own citizens.
• It has created disparities among states also by making the rich more richer and the poor more poorer.

Impact of Globalisation on India
• It led to the creation of many new jobs in the MNCs like cell phones, FMCG etc. but these jobs are concentrated more in the services sector.
• India companies are joining hands with many MNCs and also many Indian companies itself became MNCs such as Reliance Indutries, TATA etc.
• Globalisation provided a wide range of choice in selecting goods to consumers.

10. Do you agree with the argument that globalisation leads to cultural heterogeneity?

Answer

While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. This phenomenon is called cultural heterogenisation. All cultures accept outside influences all the time. Sometime external influences enlarge the choices or modify our culture without overwhelming the traditions. Thus, it would be correct to say that globalisation leads to cultural heterogeneity.

11. How has globalisation impacted on India and how is India in turn impacting on globalisation?

Answer

Impact of Globalisation on India:
• It led to the creation of many new jobs in the MNCs like cell phones, FMCG etc.
• India is playing a crucial role among developing countries in trade and commerce by making some companies multinational themselves such as Tata, Reliance etc.
• It has invited inflow of private foreign capital and export oriented activities. India in turn impacting:
After the financial crisis of 1991, Indian economy was liberalised to attract foreign direct investment.
• India introduced new trade policy reforms to remove tariffs and restrictions imposed on imports.
• Under industries, it abolished licensing system exempting few specified industries only.
• Banking operations by private sectors were permitted to expand in the country.
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