NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Recent Developments in Indian Politics

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Recent Developments in Indian Politics


1. Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni… and arrange the file chronologically.
(a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir.
(b) Formation of Janata Dal.
(c) The demolition of Babri Masjid.
(d) Assassination of India Gandhi.
(e) The formation of NDA government.
(f) Godhra incident and its fallout.
(g) Formation of UPA government.

Answer

(a) Assassination of India Gandhi(1984).
(b) Formation of Janata Dal (1989)
(c) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir (1990)
(d) The demolition of Babri Masjid (1992)
(e) The formation of NDA government (1997)
(g) Formation of UPA government (2004)

2. Match the following:

(a) Politics of Consensus i. Shah Bano case
(b) Caste based partiesii. Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justiceiii. Coalition government
(d) Growing strength of Regional partiesiv. Agreement on Economic policies

Answer

(a) Politics of Consensus iv. Agreement on Economic policies
(b) Caste based partiesii. Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justicei. Shah Bano case
(d) Growing strength of Regional partiesiii. Coalition government

3. State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?

Answer

• Defeat of the Congress party: Congress lost in the elections held in 1989. The Congress came back to power soon after the mid-term elections held in 1991. But the elections of 1989 marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system’. The Congress remained an important party but it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.
• Mandal issues: The new National Front government in 1990 implement the recommendation of the Mandal Commission that jobs in central government should be reserved for the Other Backward Classes. The dispute between the supporters and opponents of OBC reservations played an important role in shaping politics since 1989.
• Economic Policy: This is known as the initiation of the structural adjustment programme or the new economic reforms. Started by Rajiv Gandhi, these changes first became very visible in 1991 and radically changed the direction that the Indian economy had pursued since Independence.
• Demolition of Babri Masjid in December 1992: This even intensified debates about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism. These developments are associated with the rise of the BJP and the politics of ‘Hindutva’.
• The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991: It led to a change in leadership of the Congress party. He was assassinated by a Sri Lankan Tamil linked to the LTTE. In the elections of 1991, Congress emerged as the single largest party.

4. “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or re- aligning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?

Answer

In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or re- aligning on the basis of ideology:
• The coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
• Thus, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.

5. Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.

Answer

Emergence of BJP as a Powerful Force in Post- Emergency Politics:
• BJP did not get much success in the elections held in 1980 and 1984.
• After 1986, the party began to emphasise the Hindu nationalist element in its ideology and adopted the strategy of mobilising the Hindus.
• In the elections of 1989, the National front under V.P. Singh came to power supported by left front and BJP because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power.
• In 1996, BJP emerged as the largest part and minority government was formed for a short period but in June 1996, BJP government collapsed as they fail to get majority support in the vote of confidence.
• From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and others formed alliances NDA (National Democratic Alliance) under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
• In 2003, Lok Sabha elections, BJP lost the elections but again in 2014, it came into power with huge majority.

6. In spite of the decline of Congress dominance, the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer

the elections of 1989 marked the end of Congress dominance but Congress continued to influence politics in country:
• The Congress improved its performance and came back to power soon after the mid-term elections held in 1991.
• In 1996, the left continued to support the non-Congress government but this time Congress supported it as both Congress and Left wanted to keep BJP out of power.
• In 2004, Congress formed coalition government with their alliance.

7. Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of last 30 years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.

Answer

Party system is the backbone of the democracy as it provide meaningful option to the people. The parties with different ideologies tried to convince people to support them in the elections. Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy as one can form the government and another one can play the role of opposition. Opposition also play very important role in the functioning of democracy draw the attention of the government to the real issues. During the first two decades, there was only one party, Indian National Congress was present. After 1989, collision government was the main feature of Indian political system. The multiparty system was prevalent which represented the diversity of India.

8. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests, …. . An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests. — Zoya Hasan
(a) Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.
(b) Given an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.
(c) Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?

Answer

(a) The Party system in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the congress system destroyed itself but the fragmentation of the congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self- representation, which raises question about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests.

(b) To unsolve a party system to accommodate diverse interests but the political parties formed under the leadership of Kanshi Ram for Dalits only.

(c) It is necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests to maintain the culture of India ‘Unity in Diversity’ so that there should be no space for separatist movements in India.
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