NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations

Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science will prepare students to do better during immense pressure and at the same time make them fresh and enhances memory. Your marks play an important role in shaping future thus these Class 12 NCERT Solutions will become your comprehensive guide in easy learning and evaluating yourself. It will let you explore answers of those questions which you're finding difficult to solve.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Regional Aspirations

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Regional Aspirations


1. Match the following.

A. Nature of regional aspirationsB. States
(a) Socio-religious identity leading to statehoodi. Nagaland /Mizoram
(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centreii. Jharkhand /Chattisgarh
(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehoodiii. Punjab
(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identityiv. Tamil Nadu

Answer

A. Nature of regional aspirationsB. States
(a) Socio-religious identity leading to statehoodiii. Punjab
(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centreiv. Tamil Nadu
(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehoodii. Jharkhand /Chattisgarh
(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identityi. Nagaland /Mizoram

2. Regional aspirations of the people of North-East get expressed in different ways. These include movements against outsiders, movement for greater autonomy and movement for separate national existence. On the map of the North-East, using different shades for these three, show the States where these expressions are prominently found.

Answer


3. What were the main provisions of the Punjab accord? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between the Punjab and its neighbouring States?

Answer

Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi had negotiations with moderate elements of the Akali Dal to establish peace in Punjab. An accord was signed with Sant Harchand Singh Longowal in July, 1985 which was known as the Rajiv Gandhi - Longowal Accord or the Punjab Accord.
Provision of Punjab Accord:
• It was agreed that Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab
• A separate commission would be appointed to resolve the border dispute between Punjab and Haryana, 
• A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
• The agreement also provided for compensation to and better treatment of those affected by the militancy in Punjab and the withdrawal of the application of Armed Forces Special Powers Act in Punjab.
Peace Positions after Accord:
• Peace did not come easily. The cycle of violence continued nearly for a decade.
• Militancy and counter insurgency violence led to excesses by the police and violations of human rights.
• Politically, it led to fragmentation of the Akali Dal.
• The central government had to impose President’s rule in the State and the normal electoral and political process was suspended.
• When elections were held in Punjab in 1992, only 24 percent of the electors tuned out to vote.

4. Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?

Answer

• The Akali Dal adopted a resolution in October, 1973 in its meeting held at gurudwara Anandpur Sahib.
• The Anandpur Sahib Resolution asserted regional autonomy and wanted to redefine centre-state relationship in the country.
• The resolution also spoke of the aspirations of the Sikh qaum (community or nation) and declared its goal as attaining the bolbala (dominance or hegemony) of the Sikhs.
• The Resolution was a plea for strengthening federalism, but it could also be interpreted as a plea for a separate Sikh nation.
• The Resolution had a limited appeal among the Sikh masses. A few years later, after the Akali government had been dismissed in 1980, the Akali Dal launched a movement on the question of the distribution of water between Punjab and its neighbouring States.
• A section of the religious leaders raised the question of autonomous Sikh identity. The more extreme elements started advocating secession from India and the creation of ‘Khalistan’.

5. Explain the internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these lead to multiple regional aspirations in that State.

Answer

Jammu–Kashmir has three regions– Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
• Kashmir region is Kashmir valley consisting Kashmiri speaking and mostly Muslim with a Kashmiri speaking Hindu minority.
• Jammu region consists of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and speakers of various languages, in the areas of foothills and plains.
• Ladakh region is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims and maintains an little population area.
These internal divisions led to multiple regional aspirations:
• There is a section of people outside of J&K that believed that the special status of the State conferred by Article 370 did not allow full integration of the State with India. They felt that Article 370 be revoked and J&K be treated like any other state of India.
• One strand of separatists who want a separate Kashmiri nation, independent of India and Pakistan.
• Another group wants greater autonomy for the people of the state within the Indian union.
• There are groups that want Kashmir to merge with Pakistan.

6. What are the various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir? Which of these do you think are justifiable? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

The various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir:
• Kashmiris were promised to make accession on reference of people after situation created by tribal invasion, becomes normal. But it has not been fulfilled, hence, it generated the demand for “Plebiscite”.
• Sometimes, it was felt that special federal status guaranteed by Article 370 has been eroded practically which led the demand for restoration of autonomy or “Greater State Autonomy”.
• It is felt that democracy, which is practised in rest of India has not been similarly institutionalised in Jammu and Kashmir.
According to my opinion, the first position is justifiable as Plebiscite is a democratic process and help in understanding the opinion of Kashmiri people.

7. The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.

Answer

The Assam Movement from 1979 to 1985 is a movement against ‘outsiders’ which was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness.
• The Assamese suspected that there were huge numbers of illegal Bengali Muslim settlers from Bangladesh.
• They felt that unless these foreign nationals are detected and deported they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority.
• There was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam despite the existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal. It was felt that these were drained out of the State without any commensurate benefit to the people.

8. All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples from this chapter.

Answer

In a democracy regional aspirations have the chance to express themselves. The best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression. In the eighties, militancy had erupted in Punjab; problems were persisting in the North-East; students in Assam were agitating; Kashmir valley was on the boil. Instead of treating these as simple law and order problems, the Government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movements. This produced a reconciliation which reduced the tensions existing in many regions.

9. Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer

Yes, I agree Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity.
• Expression of regional issues is not an aberration or an abnormal phenomenon.
• A large and diverse democracy like India must deal with regional aspirations on a regular basis. Nation building is an ongoing process.
• The best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression.
• The government of India settled down some negotiations with many regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions. Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.

10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
One of Hazarika’s songs.. … dwells on the unity theme; the seven states of north-eastern India become seven sisters born of the same mother. …. ‘Meghalaya went own way…., Arunachal too separated and Mizoram appeared in Assam’s gateway as a groom to marry another daughter.’ ….. …. .. The song ends with a determination to keep the unity of the Assamese with other smaller nationalities that are left in the present-day Assam – ‘the Karbis and the Mising brothersand sisters are our dear ones.’ — SANJIB BARUAH
(a) Which unity is the poet talking about?
(b) Why were some States of North-East created separately out of the erstwhile State of Assam?
(c) Do you think that the same theme of unity could apply to all the regions of India? Why?

Answer

(a) The poet is talking about unity of Assamese.

(b) The regional parties felt that the government was imposing Assamese language upon them, so the demands for separate states were raised.

(c) Yes, same theme could be applied to all the regions of India because Indian government deals with all these regional aspirations frequently.
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