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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of Planned Development

Chapter 3 Politics of Planned Development NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science given here are very much beneficial in completing homework on time and checking your own answers. Class 12 NCERT Solutions will provide good experience and guide student in a better way. These NCERT Solutions are helpful resources that can help you not only cover the entire syllabus but also provide in depth analysis of the topics.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Politics of Planned Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Politics of Planned Development


1. Which of these statements about the Bombay Plan is incorrect?
(a) It was a blueprint for India’s economic future.
(b) It supported state-ownership of industry.
(c) It was made by some leading industrialists.
(d) It supported strongly the idea of planning.
► (b) It supported state-ownership of industry.

2. Which of the following ideas did not form part of the early phase of India’s development policy?
(a) Planning
(b) Liberalisation
(c) Cooperative Farming
(d) Self sufficiency

Answer

(b) Liberalisation

3. The idea of planning in India was drawn from
(a) the Bombay plan
(c) Gandhian vision of society
(b) experiences of the Soviet
(d) Demand by peasant bloc countries organisations
i. b and d only
iii. a and b only
ii. d and c only
iv. all the above

Answer

iv. all the above

4. Match the following.

(a) Charan Singh i. Industrialisation
(b) P C Mahalanobis ii. Zoning
(c) Bihar Famine iii. Farmers
(d) Verghese Kurien iv. Milk Cooperatives

Answer

(a) Charan Singh iii. Farmers
(b) P C Mahalanobis i. Industrialisation
(c) Bihar Famine ii. Zoning
(d) Verghese Kurien iv. Milk Cooperatives

5. What were the major differences in the approach towards development at the time of Independence? Has the debate been resolved?

Answer

• At the time of Independence India had two models of modern development into considerations to be adopted the liberal capitalist model like Europe and the US and the socialist model like the USSR.
• Modernisation referred to growth, material progress and scientific rationality.
• A debate had been occurred regarding the adoption of model of development. Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru supported the socialist model.
• The government gave the priority to poverty alleviation alongwith social and economic redistribution.
• At the same time, the leaders debated on the following issues:
(a) Industrialsation should be a preferred path.
(b) Rural poverty should be alleviated.
(c) Rural poverty should be alleviated.

6. What was the major thrust of the First Five Year Plan? In which ways did the Second Plan differ from the first one?

Answer

The major thrust of the First Five Year Plan was on the agrarian sector including investment in dams and irrigation.
• Huge allocations were made for large scale projects like Bhakra-Nangal Dam.
• It focused on land reforms for the development in rural areas.
• It aimed to increase level of National Income.
The first five year plan differed from the second five year plan:
• In the second plan, much stress was laid on development of heavy industries.
• The first plan called for sustained patience, but the aim of the second plan was to effect structural changes with greater pace.

7. What was the Green Revolution? Mention two positive and two negative consequences of the Green Revolution.

Answer

Green Revolution was a new strategy for agriculture in order to ensure food sufficiency. The government offered high-yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices. The government fixed the prices also to purchase the produce of farmers at a given price.

Two Positive Consequences of Green Revolution
• It benefited big landlords and rich farmers a lot. The production of wheat increased in particular.
• It accelerated the process of polarisation of different classes of the society and disparate regions of the country. Some regions of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh became very prosperous in respect of agricultural production.

Two Negative Consequences of Green Revolution
• In many parts, the stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords produced conditions favourable for leftwing organisations to organise the poor peasants. 
• It delivered only a moderate agricultural growth i.e. a rise in rice and wheat production by raising availability of foodgrains in country.

8. State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of the Second Five Year Plan.

Answer

The main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of the Second Five Year Plan

• Agriculture versus industry: Second Five Year Plan emphasised on industry in place of agriculture or rural India. J.C. Kumarappa, a Gandhian Economist proposed an alternative blueprint to emphasise on rural industrialisation. Chaudhary Charan Singh, a leader of Bharatiya Lok Dal said that the planning was leading to creation of prosperity in urban and industrial section at the expense of the farmers and rural population.

• Public versus private sector: Many pointed out that the state did not spend any significant amount for public education and healthcare. Some argued that the planners refused to provide the private sector with enough space and the stimulus to grow. The state’s policy to restrict import of goods that could be produced in the domestic market with little or no competition left the private sector with no incentive to improve their products and make them cheaper.

9. “Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasising the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning”. Give arguments for or against this proposition.

Answer

No, the above statement is not entirely correct because state’s intervention was mandatory to regulate country’s economy after independence immediately. India did not follow either capitalist model or socialist model completely. Instead it adopted adopted Mixed economy where both private and public sector played key role in economy.
• If the private sector was allowed it may led to monopoly in the market.
• The gaps of poverty and economic inequality would become very wide.
• Also, it may led to widespread unemployment.
• The urban regions would have developed but the rural regions would have been struggling for basic amenities.

10. Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
“In the early years of Independence, two contradictory tendencies were already well advanced inside the Congress party. On the one hand, the national party executive endorsed socialist principles
of state ownership, regulation and control over key sectors of the economy in order to improve productivity and at the same time curb economic concentration. On the other hand, the national Congress government pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment that was justified in terms of the sole criterion of achieving maximum increase in production. “ — FRANCINE FRANKEL
(a) What is the contradiction that the author is talking about? What would be the political implications of a contradiction like this?
(b) If the author is correct, why is it that the Congress was pursuing this policy? Was it related to the nature of the opposition parties?
(c) Was there also a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress party and its Sate level leaders?

Answer

(a) The author is talking about the contradiction between selecting capitalist and socialist model. Political implications of this contradiction may result the differences among party members itself and government can issue licensing and permits in more complicated manner.

(b) Congress was pursuing this policy in order to achieve maximum increased in production. Yes, it was related to the nature of opposition parties to be pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment.

(c) No, there was not a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress Party and its state level leaders because state emphasised on states’ ownership, regulation and control over key sectors improve productivity whereas control leadership pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment.
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