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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India’s External Relations

We have provided Chapter 4 India’s External Relations Class 12 Political Science NCERT Solutions on this page that will help you in identify, analyze, and then rectify the mistakes. You can figure out the latest marking scheme through NCERT Solutions for Class 12 and prepare your answers as per the demand. It will make much easier to memorize topics faster and frame better answers.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science India’s External Relations

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science India’s External Relations


1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against each of these statements.

(a) Non-alignment allowed India to gain assistance both from USA and USSR.
► True

(b) India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained from the beginning.
► True

(c) The cold war has affected the relationship between India and Pakistan.
► True

(d) The treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1971 was the result of India’s closeness to USA.
► False

2. Match the following:

(a) The goal of India’s foreign policy in the period 1950-1964i. Tibetan spiritual leader who crossed over to India
(b) Panchsheelii. Preservation of territorial integrity, sovereignty and economic development
(c) Bandung Conferenceiii. Five principles of peaceful coexistence
(d) Dalai Lamaiv. Led to the establishment of NAM

Answer

(a) The goal of India’s foreign policy in the period 1950-1964ii. Preservation of territorial integrity, sovereignty and economic development
(b) Panchsheeliii. Five principles of peaceful coexistence
(c) Bandung Conferenceiv. Led to the establishment of NAM
(d) Dalai Lamai. Tibetan spiritual leader who crossed over to India

3. Why did Nehru regard conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.

Answer

• India maintain peace and security through mutual cooperation. It reflects in the Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 51).
• India followed the policy of Non-alignment, made efforts to reduce cold war tensions. It contributed human resources to UN peace keeping operations.

4. “The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate”. Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.

Answer

The statement is justified to maximum extent:
• ‘Sino-Indian Conflict of 1962’ to dent India’s image at home and abroad. India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to solve the crisis. The Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict. It created a sense of national humiliation and at the same time strengthened a spirit of nationalism.
• Political mood of country began to change, when no-confidence motion against Nehru moved in and debated in Lok-Sabha.
• ‘Sino-Indian Conflict’ splitted the Communist Party of India in 1964s split fraction formed communist party of India (CPI-M).
• Besides, the war with China alerted Indian leadership to volatile situation in the North east region.
• Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region posed the challenge of national integration in front of India.

5. Identify any two aspects of India’s foreign policy that you would like to retain and two that you would like to change, if you were to become a decision maker. Give reasons to support your position.

Answer

Two points of India's foreign policy should be retained:
• The image of India as a peaceful and non-violent country should be remain unchanged at international platform which would help India in increasing its soft power.
• Present foreign policy about refusal to sign the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Two points of India's foreign policy should be changed:
• A clear diplomatic method should be adopted for having friendship with the neighbouring countries so that this region emerges as a powerful political, economic and military power.
• India should renounce the policy of non-alignment and should adopt policy followed by the United States and many countries of Western Europe.

6. Write short notes on the following.
(a) India’s Nuclear policy
(b) Consensus in foreign policy matters

Answer

(a) India’s Nuclear policy: Pt. Nehru initiated nuclear programme in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J.Bhoba. India advocates no first use of nuclear weapons India is committed to global verifiable on non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear weapon free world. India was against nuclear weapons, hence pleaded many nuclear disarmament with superpowers. India’s first Nuclear Test in May 1974 was a peaceful explosion and India always argued to use nuclear power for peaceful purpose only. India refused to sign on NPT considering it as discriminatory.

(b) Consensus in foreign policy matters: Pt. Nehru as a Prime Minister and foreign minister played profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964. When different parties came to power from time to time, foreign policy of India played a limited role in party politics.

7. India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy? Or would you say that this was a result of international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.

Answer

No, this was not the failure of foreign policy but this was a result of international situation:

• Conflict with China: China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the government of India did not oppose this openly. when China began to suppress Tibetan Culture, India grew uneasy. Another border dispute arose when China claimed Aksai Chin area and NEFA (much of the state in Arunachal Pradesh) within the Indian territory. Despite discussion among top leaders, these differences could not be resolved. Several small border skirmishes between the armies of the two countries took place.

• Wars and conflicts with Pakistan: A proxy war broke out between the Indian and Pakistani armies in Kashmir during 1947 itself. But this did not turn into a full war. A serious armed conflict between two countries began in 1965 with the initiative of Pakistan over Kashmir partition. In 1966, the hostilities came to an end with the UN intervention and Tashkent Agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan. The 1965 War added to India’s already difficult economic situation.

• Bangladesh war, 1971: In 1971, Pakistan unleashed a region of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan. A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India. Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972. Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a clear sign of India’s growing military powers.

8. Does India’s foreign policy reflect her desire to be an important regional power? Argue your case with the Bangladesh war of 1971 as an example.

Answer

Yes, India’s foreign Policy reflects her desire to be an important regional power which was revealed during the Bangladesh war of 1971.
• In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis in the way for a split verdict i. e. Zulficar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as winner in West Pakistan while Awami League led by ‘Sheikh Mujibur-Rehman’ swept through East Pakistan.
• The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against discriminatory attitude of west Pakistan which was not acceptable to west Pakistan rulers.
• In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
• India had to bear 80 lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
• A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India. if) Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhakan and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
• Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a dear sign of India’s growing military powers.

9. How does political leadership of a nation affect its foreign policy? Explain this with the help of examples from India’s foreign policy.

Answer

Foreign policy of a nation reflects the political leadership of the nation:
• During the time of Nehru, non-alignment was the major policy of foreign affairs but slowly and gradually India started gaining a soviet inclination.
• During non-congress government in 1977, Janata Party announced to follow non-alignment genuinely. This implied that the pro-Soviet tilt in foreign policy will be corrected. Since then, all governments took initiatives to restore better relations with China and entered into close ties with the US.
• In Post 1990 period the ruling parties were criticised for their pro-US foreign policy. During this period Russia had lost its global pre-eminence despite it has been India’s good friend. Hence, India’s foreign policy shifted to a more pro-US strategy.
•  Besides, the contemporary international situation is also more influenced by economic interests than military interests so made an impact on India’s foreign policy.

10. Read the Passage:
“Broadly, non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs.It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view, though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries”.
- Jawaharlal Nehru
(a) Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
(b) Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons for your answer,
(c) If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?


Answer

(a) Nehru wanted to keep off military blocs as he wanted rapid development of India by taking financial assistance and technology from both the super-powers and while other countries aligned with one of the two super-powers. He did not like to ruin the limited resources of the country by aligning with any military alliance.

(b) No, the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty did not violate non-alignment because it was not to maintain military relations but the treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation.

(c) NAM emphasises on disarmament, decolonisation and terrorism except staying away from military blocs.
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