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Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Extra Questions Chapter 10 Class 7 History

Chapter 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Class 7 History Extra Questions is very useful in knowing about important points given inside the chapter. Extra Questions for Class 7 will improve your learning experience and increase concentration among students.

Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Extra Questions Chapter 10 Class 7 History


Chapter 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs):


1. Who founded Awadh?

Answer

Sa'adat Khan.

2. The independent state of Jats was established by______.

Answer

Churaman.

3. Who imposed Chauth?

Answer

Marathas.

4. Name the group that was considered as the back bone of Maratha army.

Answer

Kunbis.

5. Why does the entire body of Sikhs used to meet in Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali?

Answer

To take collective decisions known as "Resolutions of the Guru" or gurumatas.

6. How Saadat khan did reduced Mughal control over his state?

Answer

By reducing the number of Mughal jagirdars in Awadh.

7. Who was a Naib?

Answer

Deputy to the governor of the province.

8. Khalsa was established in________.

Answer

1699 AD.

9. Where is Bharatpur fort situated?

Answer

Dig.

10. What was the position of Jagat Seth during the rule of Alivardi Khan?

Answer

11. What happened to Farrukh Siyar and Alamgir II?

Answer

Farrukh Singh and Alamgir I were assassinated by their nobles.

12. Several states were carved out of the Old Mughals provinces in the 18th century. Three among them were prominent. Name them.

Answer

These three provinces were: Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad.

13. Who seized the rich province of the Punjab and the Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals in mid of the 17th century?

Answer

Ahmed Shah Abdali.

14. Who built new forts at Deeg?

Answer

Suraj Mal.

15. Who established the independent Sikh state of Punjab?

Answer

Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

16. The capital of Sawai Raja Jai Singh was_________.

Answer

Amber.

17. State the collective name given to the whole army of the "misls".

Answer

Dal Khalsa.

18. Name the governor of Malwa who founded his new capital at Jaipur.

Answer

Sawai Raja Jai Singh.

19. Name the Persian ruler, who raided India for the first time.

Answer

Nadir Shah.

20. The Capital of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was located at _________.

Answer

Lahore.

Chapter 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Short Answer Questions (SAQs):


1. Write a short note on the three groups in the states of eighteenth century?

Answer

The states of the eighteenth century can be divided into three overlapping groups:
• States that were old Mughal provinces like Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. Although extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers of these states did not break their formal ties with the Mughal emperor
• States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watan jagirs. These included several Rajput principalities
• The last group included states under the control of Marathas, Sikhs and others like the Jats.

2. Who ruled the Maratha kingdom after the death of Shivaji?

Answer

After the death of Shivaji, the Maratha kingdom was ruled by a family of Chitpavan Brahmanas. They served Shivaji's successors as Peshwa or principle minister and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha Empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. During their rein, the Maratha Empire reached its zenith ruling most of the Indian Subcontinent.

3. What was the rakhi system?

Answer

The word rakhi literally means 'protection'. In practice, it was a tribute received by the combined forces of the Sikhs dal Khalsa for the protection provided or guaranteed by them against external aggression to the cultivators paying it. The cultivators had to pay a tax of 20 percent of the produce to the Sikhs of dal Khalsa for their protection.

4. Who was Maharaja Ranjit Singh?

Answer

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire and was also known as Sher-e-Punjab. In the late eighteenth century, the Sikh territories were extended from the Indus to the Jamuna but they were divided under different rulers. Maharaja Ranjit Singh reunited all groups and established his capital at Lahore in 1799.

5. Who ruled the Maratha kingdom after the death of Shivaji?

Answer

After the death of Shivaji, the Maratha kingdom was ruled by a family of Chitpavan Brahmanas. They served Shivaji's successors as Peshwa or principle minister and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha Empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. During their rein, the Maratha Empire reached its zenith ruling most of the Indian Subcontinent.

6. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagridari system?

Answer

Under jagirdari system, jagirdars were appointed by the Mughals who exercised a complete control on them (jagirdars). The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal wanted to decrease Mughal influence in their states by reducing the number of jagirdars. This step of theirs would give them independence which was necessary to make their position strong.

7. What did the Marathas do to strengthen their administrative system?

Answer

The Marathas developed an effective administrative system. Agriculture was encouraged and trade revived. This allowed Maratha chiefs or sardars like Sindhia of Gwalior, Gaekwad of Baroda and Bhonsle of Nagpur to raise powerful armies. Ujjain expanded under Sindhia’s patronage and Indore under Holkar’s. These cities functioned as important commercial and cultural centres. New trade routes emerged within the areas controlled by the Marathas.

8. What were jathas?

Answer

Jatha in the Sikh tradition signifies a group of volunteers coming forth to carry out a specific task, be it an armed combat or a peaceful agitation. After the capture and execution of Banda Singh Bahadur, the Sikhs organised themselves into a number of bands called jathas, to fight against the oppressors. Each jatha was grouped around a jathedar or a leader. These jathas were finally reorganized on the Baisakhi of 1748 into 11 misls. The entire fighting force of the Sikhs was named Dal Khalsa.

9. Who was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan? How did he try to decrease the Mughal influence in the Awadh region?

Answer

Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan was appointed as the subadar of Awadh in 1722. Later on he carved out an independent state of Awadh from the Mughal empire. Burhan-ul-Mulk tried to decrease Mughal influence in the Awadh region by:
• Reducing the number of jagirdars appointed by the Mughals.
• Reducing the size of jagirs and appointed his own loyal servants to vacant positions.
• Preventing cheating the accounts of jagirdars were checked.
• Special officers were appointed by the Nawab to reassess the revenues of all the districts.

10. When did Sikhs emerge as a stronger community?

Answer

Sikhs became political community during seventeenth century. The Khalsa sought to defend the Sikh community from oppression by Mughal rulers. Sikh fought with Mughal officials. Under Guru Govind Singh, they fought several battles against Mughal rulers. After the death of Guru Govind Singh, Banda Bahadur established the Sikh rule and administration over territory between Sutlej and Jamuna.

11. Write a short note on administration of Marathas.

Answer

Marathas developed an effective administration system, which they had inherited from Shivaji.Maratha chiefs were known as Sardars. The land revenue was main source of income. Land revenue though was fixed on survey and assessment but it was feudal in nature. Territories were divided on the basis of revenue. Territories not under their direct control paid Chauth (1/4 revenue). In return they got the protection from attacks by Marathas. The territories who paid Sardeshmukhi (1/10 of land revenue) got protection by other forces.

12. What were the three common features that existed amongst Bengal, Awadh and Hyderabad?

Answer

• First, though many of the larger states were established by erstwhile Mughal nobles they were highly suspicious of some of the administrative systems that they had inherited, in particular the jagirdari system.
• Secondly, their method of tax collection differed rather than relying upon the officers of the state, all
three regimes contracted with revenue-farmers for the collection of revenue. The practice of jagirdari, thoroughly disapproved of by the Mughals, spread all over impact on the countryside differed considerably.
• Third, all the three states developed relationship with rich bankers and merchants.

Chapter 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Long Answer Questions (LAQs):


1. Explain the reasons for the decline of Mughal Empire?

Answer

The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to combination of factors:
• The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak, unworthy and lacked the character, motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly.
• Absence of a definite law of succession was another important factor.
• Deterioration and demoralization of the army was one of the potent reason.
• The financial position of the Mughals had become deplorable.
• The raids by Nadir Shah, and repeated invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali, resulted in further weakening of the empire.
• The already weakened empire faced further encroachment by the British and the French. The British and French, who had initially come as traders, took full advantage of the weakening empire and soon became masters of the whole of India.

2. What were the different overlapping group of states that emerged in the 18th Century after the decline of the Mughal Empire?

Answer

Through the eighteenth century, the Mughal Empire gradually fragmented into a number of independent, regional states. Broadly speaking the states of the eighteenth century can be divided into three overlapping groups:
• States that were old Mughal provinces like Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. Although extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers of these states did not break their formal ties with the Mughal emperor.
• States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watan jagirs. These included several Rajput principalities.
• The last group included states under the control of Marathas, Sikhs and others like the Jats. These were of differing sizes and had seized their independence from the Mughals after a long-drawn armed struggle.

3. How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?

Answer

The organisation of the Sikhs emerged into a political community during the 17th century. This helped
in regional state-building in Punjab. Guru Gobind Singh fought several battles against the Rajput and
Mughal rulers. He instituted the Khalsa in 1699.
• After his death in 1708, the Khalsa rose in revolt against the Mughal authority under the leadership of Banda Bahadur, declared their sovereign rule and established their own administration between the Sutlej and the Jamuna. Banda Bahadur was captured and executed in 1716.
• Under a number of able leaders in the 18th century, the Sikhs organised themselves into a number of bands. The entire body used to meet at Amritsar to take collective decisions. Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with the belief that their destiny was to ruletheir well-knit organisation enabled them to put up a successful resistance to the Mughal governors first and then to Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Khalsa declared their sovereign rule again in 1765.
• The Sikh territories in the late 18th century were divided under different rulers. One of them was Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He re-united these groups and established his capital at Lahore in 1799.
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