NCERT Solutions for Class 12: Ch 4 Alternative Centres of Power Political Science

Exercises

1. Arrange the following in chronological order:
(a) China’s accession to WTO
(b) Establishment of the EEC
(c) Establishment of the EU
(d) Birth of ARF

Answer

(b) Establishment of the EEC – 1957
(c) Establishment of the EU – 1992
(d) Birth of ARF – 1994
(a) China’s accession to WTO

2. The ASEAN WAY:
(a) Reflects the lifestyle of ASEAN members.
(b) A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative.
(c) The defense policy followed by the ASEAN members.
(d) The road that connects all the ASEAN members.

Answer

(b) A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative.

3. Who among the following adopted an ‘open door’ policy?
(a) China
(b) EU
(c) Japan
(d) USA

Answer

(a) China

4. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over…….. and …….. region.
(b) ARF was established in the year……..
(c) China entered into bilateral relations with ………(a major country) in 1972.
(d) ………..plan influenced the establishment of the organization for European Economic Cooperation in 1948.
(e)……….. is the organization of ASEAN that deals with security.

Answer

(a) Arunachal Pradesh, Aksai Chin,
(b) 1994
(c) the US
(d) Marshall
(e) Asian Regional Forum

5. What are the objectives of establishing regional organizations?

Answer

The regional organizations are established with the following objectives:
• To accelerate economic growth and through that ‘social progress and cultural development’.To make regional development at par the fast-growing global economy.
• To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law.
• To make regional development at par the fast-growing global economy.

6. How does geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organizations?

Answer

The geographical proximity influences the formation of regional organizations because:
• It is influenced by almost some historical enmities and weaknesses.
• Sometimes the similar interests come together.
• Even fruitful areas for the regional economy are also the result of geographical proximity.

7. What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?

Answer

The components of ASEAN Vision 2020 are:
• An outward looking role in the international community.
• To encourage negotiations over conflicts in tie region.
•  Thus, ASEAN has mediated the end of the Cambodian conflict, the East Timor crisis, and meets annually to discuss East Asian cooperation.

8. Name the pillars aid objectives of ASEAN community.

Answer

The ASEAN community established the following three pillars:
• The ASEAN Security Community
• The ASEAN Economic Community
• The ASEAN Socio-cultural Community.

The objectives of the ASEAN community are:
• Territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontations.
• To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
• To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations Charter.
• To establish a dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
• To create Free Trade Areas for investments, labor and services.

9. In what ways does the present Chinese economy differ from its command economy?

Answer

• Chinese opened their economy step by step. This helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation.
• Privatisation of agriculture led to a remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes.
• The present Chinese economy established new trading laws and created Special Economic Zones leading the higher rise in foreign trade. During Command economy the international trade was minimal and per capita income was very low.

10. How did the European countries resolve their Post Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.

Answer

After the end of the Second World War, the European States confronted the ruin of their economies and the destruction of assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded. European countries resolved their Post Second World War problems in the following ways:
• Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the USA provided financial help to revive the European economy.
• The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO.
• Under the ‘Marshall Plan,’ the organization for European Economic Cooperation was established in 1948 to extend cooperation on trade and economic issues among the Western European States.
• European Union was founded in 1992 for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs and creation of a single currency. It evolved from an economic union to political one over time.

The following attempts led to the formation of the European Union:
• The Council of Europe was established in 1949 for political cooperation.
• The process of economic integration of European Capitalist countries led to the formation of the European Economic Community in 1957.
• The above-mentioned processes acquired a political dimension with the creation of the European Parliament.
• The collapse of Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992.

11. What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organization?

Answer

As a supernational organization, the European Union bears economic, political diplomacy and military influence as a regional organization in the following manner:

• Economic Influence:
(а) Three times larger share in world trade than the US.
(b) Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
(c) The EU functions as an important bloc in the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

• Political and Diplomatic Influences:
(a) Two members of the EU, Britain, and France hold permanent seats in the Security Council to influence the UN policies.
(b) The EU also includes various non-permanent members of the UNSC.
(c) The European Union play an influential role in diplomacy and negotiations except for the military force i.e. the EU’s dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation is remarkable.

• Military Influence:
(a) The EU’s combined armed fo^fees are second largest in the world.
(b) Its total expenditure on the military is second to the US.
(c) Its two important members— Britain and France also experience nuclear ascends of 550 nuclear warheads.
(d) The EU is the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.

12. The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.

Answer

The Indo-China relations experience strategically organized as rising economic powers in global politics and to play a major role in the Asian economy after the end of the Cold War. It can be proved on the following grounds:
• The new economic policies of India and China have broken their economy from stagnancy.
• The creation of special economic zones led to a phenomenal rise in foreign trade.
• China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment anywhere in the world. Hence, it has large reserves for foreign exchange to allow it to make a big investment in other countries.
• At the global level also, India and China have adopted similar policies in the World Trade Organisation to deepen integration with the world economy to challenge the unipolar world.

13. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organizations. Justify this statement.

Answer

This statement represents the ASEAN Regional Forum and the European Union, where ASEAN Regional Forum is based on the notion not to escalate territorial disputes into an armed confrontation:

• The ASEAN is rapidly growing as a regional organization with the Vision 2020 including an outward-looking role in the international community and to encourage negotiations over conflicts in the region.

• ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) maintains coordination of security and foreign policy.

• The EU has also been funded on the ground of common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs.

• The European Union has also extended cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from Soviet bloc.

14. Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.

Answer

The relations with China experience friendly gestures from India as India signed popular ‘Panchsheel’ to develop Indo-China relations in 1954 and advocated China’s membership to the United Nations. Still, after 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo-China relations:

• In 1962, military conflict over a border dispute of MacMohan Line resulted on the unwarranted claim by China which now lie in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.

• Differences arose from Chinese take over of Tibet in 1950 which was protested by India against China.

• After Panchsheel, attack by China on India in 1962, to occupy larger territories of India, created humiliation.

• China’s assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear programme also created differences.

• China’s military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar were viewed as hostile to Indian interests.

 All the above differences could be resolved for greater cooperation:

• Both the countries should make some more efforts to revive the harmonious attitude between themselves.

• Both the countries should move hand-in-hand to fight against terrorism, nuclear race and economic disparities.

• Both countries should develop understanding and respect.

• Hence, both of them have signed agreements on cultural exchange and cooperation in science and technology.
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