NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 4 Executive Political Science

1. A parliamentary executive means:
a. Executive where there is a parliament
b. Executive elected by the parliament
c. Where the parliament functions as the Executive
d. Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament

Answer

d. Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament.

2. Read this dialogue. Which argument do you agree with? Why?
Amit: Looking at the constitutional provisions, it seems that the President is only a rubber stamp.
Shama: The President appoints the Prime Minister. So, he must have the powers to remove the Prime Minister as well.
Rajesh: We don’t need a President. After the election, the Parliament can meet and elect a leader to be the Prime Minister.

Answer

I agree with the view expressed by Amit because President of India is a constitutional head. Despite having certain discretionary powers, the President is bound to act according to the advice given by the council of ministers. India has adopted a Parliamentary form of government and the essence of the parliamentary form of government is that the head of the State is nominal in nature.

3. Match the following

i. Works within the particular State in a. Indian Foreign which recruited Service 
ii. Works in any central government b. State Civil office located either at the national Services capital or elsewhere in the country
iii. Works in a particular State to which c. All India Services allotted; can also be sent on deputation to the centre
iv. Works in Indian missions abroad d. Central Services

Answer

i. Works within the particular State in b. State Civil office located either at the national Services capital or elsewhere in the country
ii. Works in any central government c. All India Services allotted; can also be sent on deputation to the centre
iii. Works in a particular State to which d. Central Services
iv. Works in Indian missions abroad a. Indian Foreign which recruited Service 

4. Identify the ministry which may have released the following news items. Would this be a ministry of the central government or the State government? Why?
a. An official release said that in 2004-05 the Tamil Nadu Textbooks Corporation would release new versions for standards VII, X and XI.
b. A new railway loop line bypassing the crowded Tiruvallur Chennai section to help iron ore exporters. The new line, likely to be about 80 km long, will branch off at Puttur and then reach Athipattu near the port.
c. The three-member sub-divisional committee formed to verify suicide by farmers in Ramayampet mandal has found that the two farmers who committed suicide this month have had economic problems due to failure of crops.

Answer

a. Ministry of Human Resource Development or Education department, State Government because the textbooks related to the education in a particular state are published by the government of that state.

b. Ministry of Railways, Central Government because the railway sector is an all India organisation that is managed by the central government.

c. Ministry of Agriculture, State Government because agriculture at the sub-divisional level is supervised by the agricultural department of the state government.

5. While appointing the Prime Minister, the President selects
a. Leader of the largest party in the Lok Sabha
b. Leader of the largest party in the alliance which secures a majority in the Lok Sabha
c. The leader of the largest party in the Rajya Sabha
d. Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha

Answer

d. Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha

6. Read this discussion and say which of these statements applies most to India.
Alok: Prime Minister is like a king, he decides everything in our country.
Shekhar: Prime Minister is only ‘first among equals’, he does not have any special powers. All ministers and the PM have similar powers.
Bobby: Prime Minister has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government. But after all, the Prime Minister has a greater say in policy making and in choosing the ministers.

Answer

The statement by Bobby applies most to India as the Prime Minister of India heads the executive and is accountable to the legislature at the same time. He enjoys vast powers but has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government.

7. Why do you think is the advice of the Council of Ministers binding on the President? Give your answer in not more than 100 words.

Answer

India has opted for parliamentary form of government. The President is only a nominal head but the real power is exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister because the Council of Ministers is an elected executive that has the support of the majority in the legislature. According to Article 74(1), the President is advised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Dr. Ambedkar himself had stated in the Constituent Assembly, "The President of the Indian Union will be generally bound by the advice of the ministers. He can do nothing contrary to their advice nor can he do anything without their advice."

8. The parliamentary system of executive vests many powers in the legislature for controlling the executive. Why, do you think, is it so necessary to control the executive?

Answer

• In a parliamentary system, the Prime Minister is the head of the government alongwith the President
as a nominal head of the government.

• The executive is responsible to the parliament and holds powers till it enjoys the confidence of the parliament.

• It is necessary to ensure the sensitivity towards public expectations and accountability to the needs and aspirations of the people.

9. It is said that there is too much political interference in the working of the administrative machinery. It is suggested that there should be more and more autonomous agencies which do not have to answer to the ministers.
a. Do you think this will make administration more people friendly?
b. Do you think this will make administration more efficient?
c. Does democracy mean full control of elected representatives over the administration?

Answer

a. This will not make administration more people-friendly as it would function arbitrarily and thus, lose accountability without checks and balances.

b. This will not make administration more efficient as it would lead to non compliance of bureaucratic executives with government policies. Thus, it would lead to contradiction of the bureaucracy with the objectives of the government. Efficiency in this situation is not valid as social welfare would be compromised.

c. Democracy does not mean full control of elected representatives over the administration. The task of elected representatives is to make laws and keep the administration accountable. Administration is a specialised task that is best handled by the administrative machinery. Therefore, it requires a certain degree of autonomy to carry out its task.

10. Write an essay of two hundred words on the proposal to have an elected administration instead of an appointed administration.

Answer

In most of the countries of the world, administration is appointed. Appointed administration is efficient and impartial because civil servants are selected on merit basis. To handle administrative tasks, the executives should have deep knowledge of the nation, its problems, its future prospects and the various perspectives to approach them. Only a person with deep knowledge of the facts and analytical skills can make out the possible consequences of any provision, policies and programmes of the government.

An elected administration in place of an appointed administration would be harmful because an elected administration will have instability to implement the different policies. Appointed administration is non-partisan whereas elected administration would become partisan. Elected administration would frame the policies on the basis of promises made at the time of election. In appointed administration, policies are implemented without any political interference. Electoral process is more suited for legislatures as they give representation to people in law making. The domain of execution needs expertise even though it can be monitored by elected representatives.
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