NCERT Revision Notes for Chapter 8 Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology Class 11 Physical Education

Topics in the Chapter
  • Definition of Anatomy and Physiology 
  • Importance of Anatomy and Physiology with respect to Physical Education
  • Skeleton system
  • Function and structure of Respiratory system
  • Structure of Heart and Introduction to circulatory system

Definition of Anatomy and Physiology

Types of Joints and their Categories

  • Immovable Joints: These joints are fixed and do not move Eg: skull Joint
  • Slightly Movable Joints: The movement of such joints is very limited Eg: Inter-vertibrations.
  • Freely Movable Joints: Such joints are freely movable.

Muscular System 

→ Muscle is the tissue composed of fibers capable effect bodily movement or muscle is the body tissue that can contract to produce movement. 

→ The system formed by muscles to perform different functions is known as Muscular System. 

Properties of Muscular System
  • Movement is possible in the human body due to the contraction an expansion of muscles.
  • Muscles consist of 40-50% weight of body. 
  • The muscular system consists of 600 muscles. 
  • Muscles also assist in the circulation of blood
  • They also give shape to the individual
  • 'Myology' is study of Muscles. 
Structure of Muscle

→ Every muscle fibre made up of very large number of microscopic threads called myofibril.

→ Each myofibril consists of protein molecules called Actine and myosin.

Structure and Functions of Respiratory System

Respiratory System: The Respiratory system is a system which regulates the exchange of gases. It is the process of intake of oxygen gas and exhaling Carbon di oxide gas.  

Structure of Human Respiratory System is as shown in the figure. 
Types of Respiration

1. External Respiration
2. Internal or Tissues Respiration

Functions of Respiration System
  • To provide required amount of Oxygen to blood cells. 
  • Removal of waste products from the body eg. CO2
  • Maintain body temperature.
  • It affects circulation of blood.

Structure of heart and Introduction of Circulatory System

Circulatory System
  • Circulatory system exists in our body for transporting materials (For example nutrients from food whenever required.
  • It consists of heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries). 


→ The human heart is a hollow cone-shaped muscular organ. It is a pumping system inside the body.

Structure of Heart

→ The heart is divided into four chambers. A septum divides it into a left and right side. Each side is further divided into an upper and lower chambers.

→The upper two chambers called arteries and the bottom chambers are ventricles.

Function of Heart: Systemic Circulation Pulmonary Circulation

• Arteries: Arteries are blood vessels that take blood away from the heart, except for pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

• Veins: Veins are blood vessels that return blood to the heart.

• Capillaries: Exchange of material take-place in capillaries.

• Blood: Blood is a special mixture of fluid which acts as a medium of transporting nutrients and gases from one part of body to another.

• Heart Rate: It is number of pumping of heart in one minute.

• Stroke Volume: It is the volume of blood pumped by heart in one beat. It is approximately 80 ml per beat in normal adult, whereas trained players have 100 ml per beat as stroke.

• Cardiac Output: It is given as Stroke volume x heart rate. It is 5 to 6 liters at basal level.

• Blood Pressure: It is the force exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels

• Second Wind: The breathlessness caused due to prolonged exercises is removed automatically by our body. It is called as second wind.

• Oxygen Debt: The amount of oxygen taken by an athlete during the recovery period after strenuous activity is called oxygen debt.
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