NCERT Revision Notes for Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for Differentially Abled Class 11 Physical Education

Topics in the Chapter
  • Aims and objectives of adaptive physical education
  • Organisations promoting adaptive sports (Special Olympic Bharat, Paralympics, Deaflympics)
  • Concept of Inclusion, its need and implementation
  • Role of various professionals for children with special needs (counsellor, occupational therapist, physical education, physical education teacher, speech therapist and special education)

Aims and Objective of Adaptive Physical Education

• Meaning of Adaptive Physical Education: Adaptive Physical Educations is a modified program of games, sports and other development activities that is suited to the interest.

• The Adaptive physical Education is based according to Capacities and limitations of students and individuals with special needs.

• It is done for students with special needs so they can also enjoy the experience of sports and recreations.

• Students who are differently abled and require special service to be able to observe and realize their maximum potential.

Aims and Objectives

• Theams of Adaptive Physical Education is to ensure that every child with special needs is provided with services that meet his/her Unique need.

• Adaptive Physical Education aims to motivate each and every CWSN to participate in Physical Education related programs.

• Its aim is to develop gross motor skill of CWSN.

• It aims to enhance self-confidence of CWSN as well as to teach them social skills, control over their emotions and expression on the normal programs.

• Its aim to teach the rules and strategies of games and their application while playing.

Integrated Physical Education

• It is the knowledge of different sub topic and other utility, so that the students could be trained properly.

• The knowledge of integrated physical education will promote the fitness and willingness of the individuals.

• It will help in designing high quality programmers for targeted group of students.

Adaptive Physical Education

• There are many children who suffer from various types of disabilities like mental retardation, deafness, blindness, speech impairment etc.

• For such children and special programme may be organized, so that physical, musical cognitive, social and emotional abilities can be developed in them.


For successful implementation of adaptive physical education certain principles may be kept in mind such as medical examination interest and capacity of the students, appropriate equipment, proper environment, specific instructional strategies etc.

Special Olympic Bharat

• This organization prepares the progress with physical and mental disability for special Olympic.

• At national level, they are trained to participate in 24 single and team games by the sports authority of India.

• This organization was established in 2001 as per the act of 1982.

Para Olympics

• This is similar to Olympic game for disabled sports person.

• First time, it was organized in Rome in 1960.

• The head quarter of international para Olympic is situated at Bonn, Germany. The international para Olympic is responsible for organizing summer and winter Olympic games.

• At present it comprises of 176 National Para Olympic Committees.


• The ‘Deaflympics’ are games for deaf atheletes.

• Its earlier name was International games for the Deaf.

• These games are organised by “The Internatinoal committee of sports for the Deaf” since the first event and they are sanctioned by Internation Olympic commttee.

• The deaf olympion are not guided by sounds for example, the starter gun, bullhorn commands or refree whistles.

• The Deaflympics were held first time in  paris in 1924. It was the first ever international sporting events for athletes with disability.

• The Deaflympic wintergames Started in 1949.  Then it was gathering of 148 atheltes. Now these games are grown into a global movement.

• To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55db in their “better ear”.

• Hearing aids, cochlear implant and the leke are not allowed to be used in competition.

• Alternative methods are used to address the athletes. For example the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle, on the track races are started by using a light, instead of using a starting pistol.

Illustrative Concept of Integrated Physical Education

• A new concept has been introduced in field of Physical Education-Integrated Physical Educations using physical activities and games to teach others subjects.

• From Research and studies, it has been concluded that two or more subject at areas can stimulate the interest of students and hence promote the learning of each subject.

• Integrated Physical education is addition to the general concept of Physical Education. Integrated Physical education is more than sports and Physical Activities. Integrated physical education lays emphasis on multidisciplinary learning.

• Various sub displaces such as sports sociology, sports Biomechanics, Sports medicine, sports pedagogy, Exercise Physiology, Sports Psychology, Sports Philosophy and sports management, etc. has been included in Integrated Physical Education.

Advantages of Integrated Physical Education

• Integrated physical education provides opportunities for students to see new relationships between different aspects and build a complete package of learning.

• Students can achieve next level of learning and reinforce this in various innovative ways.

• This knowledge of integrated physical education would be able to help in the fitness, health and wellness of all individuals in better way.

• High quality physical education programmers can be prepared with the help of integrated physical education.

Concept of Inclusion

• Inclusion is a social concept which basically means to include everyone as normal member of society by mutual cooperation. 

• The concept is often confused with building a community of certain class, for example differently abled people. The concept is quite different from it. 

• Inclusion is not a strategy to help people fit into the systems and structures which exist in our societies; It is about transforming those systems and structures to make it better for everyone. Inclusion is about creating a better world for everyone.

Need of Inclusion

• Inclusion in physical education helps the students with disabilities to increase their social skills and improvise them. 

• A child feels that he/she also belongs to the entire group of class so a feeling of belongingness is developed.

• Inclusion helps a child to increase his/her motor skills and lead a normal life. 

Inclusion Implementation

• Parents, students and teachers all need to work together to implement the idea of inclusion in society.

• One should have knowledge of inclusive practices and strategies. With the knowledge, teachers can manage, classrooms that encourage learning and discovery among all students, regardless of physical abilities.

• Inclusion also requires specially trained staff. Since classroom teachers need training and ongoing support to effectively teach many types of learners, they must meet regularly with inclusion specialists.

• School principals and all teachers must cooperate and share the message that all staff members. It should not be the duty of only specialized teachers but every teacher. 

School Counselor

Special education counselors work with special need children in elementary school, middle schools and high schools to ensure they have the support services they need in order to achieve their highest potential in the areas of academics, personal and social and career development.

Occupational Therapist

The goods of occupational therapy for a child are to improve participation and performance of a child and all the child’s “occupation” like self-care, play, school and other daily activities.
The occupational therapist well assess the child and modify the environment, or the way of doing a task to promote a better participation and independence.

Physical Education Teacher

Physical education program plays a very progressive role in imporving congitive functions and academic performance. Social skills and collaborative team work can also be enhanced through the different programs of physical education. The physical education teacher helps in executing these programs.


Physiotherapist is the best known therapist  who work with children with special needs. They use exercises to help their patients and keep the best possible use of their bodies. They also try to improve breathing to prevent the development of deformities and to slowdown the detoriation caused by some progressive diseases.
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