NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 10 Development Political Science Political Theory


Page No: 127

1. What do you understand by the term development? Would all sections of society benefit from such a definition of development?


Development conveys the ideas of improvement, progress, well-being and an aspiration for a better
life. Through its notion of development a society articulates what constitutes its vision for the society as a whole and how best to achieve it. This definition of development would benefit all the sections of society as it shows the basic need which is the food, shelter, education, clothes etc.

However, development has become the subject of considerable controversy today. It has unfortunately often come to be identified with achieving pre-set targets, or completing projects like dams, or factories, hospitals, rather than with realising the broader vision of development which the society upholds. In the process some sections of society may have benefited while others may have had to suffer loss of their homes, or lands, or way of life, without any compensatory gains.

2. Discuss some of the social and ecological costs of the kind of development which has been pursued in most countries.


Social Costs of Development

• A large number of people have been displaced from their homes and localities due to the construction of big dams, industrial activities and mining activities, or other projects.

• Displacement causes loss of livelihood and increased impoverishment along with destruction of local culture and community life.

• Displacement of rural agricultural communities has resulted in increased number of urban and rural poor and has brought them into the category of marginalised people.

• It is responsible for many struggles and social disorganisation.

Ecological Costs of Development

• The model of development we are pursuing is heavily dependent on the increasing use of energy which is currently generated in the world is from non-renewable sources like coal or petroleum.

• The ice in the Arctic and Antarctic is melting because of increased emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and this has the potential to cause floods and actually submerge low lying areas like Bangladesh and the Maldives.

• Air pollution is already a problem which does not discriminate between the rich and the poor.

• Loss of forests affects the poor who use forest resources for a variety of subsistence needs like firewood, medicinal herbs or food.

• Drying up of rivers and ponds and falling ground water levels means that women have to walk longer in order to procure water.

• Large tracts of the Amazon rainforests are being deforested in order to provide for the increased consumer needs.

3. What are some of the new claims for rights which the process of development has generated?

• The protection of people affected by development from the state and the society as a whole.

• The right of people to be consulted about decisions that affect their lives.

•The right to livelihood of people when their regular livelihood activities are threatened by developmental activities.

• Rights of communities, particularly tribal and aboriginal, to the use of natural resources.

• Rights of future generations to the resources that are common to the entire humanity.

4. What would be the advantages of democracy over other forms of government for ensuring that decisions regarding development are made to promote the common good?


• In a democracy conflicts over resources, or different visions of the good life, are resolved through debate and a respect for the rights of all. These cannot be imposed from the higher authorities.

• Democracy ensure participation of local decision-making bodies to take decisions about development projects in the local area.

• The people have to be consulted on issues which most affect them and it should be possible to reject projects which can adversely affect the community.

• A decentralised approach to development makes it possible to use various kinds of technologies traditional and modern in a creative manner.

5. In your view how successful have popular struggles been in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development? Discuss with examples.


The popular struggles such as Narmada Bachao Aandolan and Chipko Movement tired to make state responsive in their own way.

• Narmada Bachao Aandolan is a social movement against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada River. It first started as a protest for not providing proper rehabilitation and resettlement for the people who have been displaced by the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam. Later on, the movement turned its focus on the preservation of the environment and the eco-systems of the valley. A large forest was submerged during the construction and many people were displaced. This social movement has been partially successful in reducing the height of Sardar Sarovar Dam.

• Chipko Movement main objective was to protect the trees on the Himalayan slopes from the axes of contractors of the forest. This movement against deforestation was successful in Uttrakhand. The people hugged the trees and stopped the contractors from cutting them down. This ecological movement also secured the livelihood of the local people who are depended on these forests.

Notes of Ch 7 Nationalism

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