NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 9 Peace Political Science Political Theory


Page No: 127

1. Do you think that a change towards a peaceful world, needs a change in the way people think? Can mind promote peace and is it enough to focus only on the human mind?


Peace is the central theme of all religion. We think from our minds and this is the place where all conflicts arises. So if people can think from different irrespective then we can take step towards a peaceful world. However, the mind by itself is not enough to promote peace because you cannot control the outside harmful elements of the society Thus, the creation of a peaceful society requires the elimination of these harmful elements.

2. A State must protect the lives and rights of its citizens. However, at times its own actions are a source of violence against some of its citizens. Comment with the help of some examples.


Each state sees itself as an independent and supreme entity, it tends to protect its own perceived self-interest. The state is expected to use its force, its army or its police, to protect its citizens, in practice these forces could be deployed against its own members to suppress dissent. This is most clearly evident in authoritarian regimes and military dictatorships.

•  In America, until 1865, slavery existed. In Germany, during Hitler's regime genocide was commited. 
• In South Africa, policy of racial discrimination was followed until 1992. 
• In certain countries the policy of racial discrimination is followed even today. 
• Immigrants from Asia, Latin America and Africa are not treated well in western countries. 
• In Myanmar, under the military regime, many democratic leaders and citizens were  put in jail. Aung San Suu Kyi, the leading opposition leader was kept under House arrest from 1989 to 1995.

3. Peace can be best realised when there is freedom, equality and justice. Do you agree?


Yes, Peace can be best realised when there is freedom, equality and justice. Freedom allows people to express themselves freely on the other hand equality and justice help in removing the grounds for conflict. Through equality, we can ensure get equal treatment and reduce the chance of negative thinking. Justice ensures the prevention of oppression of individuals and groups based on class, gender, etc.

• In a democracy, where freedom, justice and equality is the right of every individual, we see people are more peaceful as compared to Iraq, Iran and North Korea. These ideals help in building a society that cooperate with others.

4. Use of violence does not achieve just ends in the long run. What do you think about this statement?


Use of violence does not achieve just ends in the long run as it tends to spin out of control, leaving behind a trail of death and destruction. Violence involved in forcefully removing oppressors, liberation struggle and self-defence is often justified. However, the removal of oppressors by the oppressed class through violent struggle leads to another cycle of violence fuelled by a feeling for revenge.
It is for this reason that pacifists, who considerpeace to be a supreme value, take a moral stand against the use of violence even for attaining just ends. They too recognise the need to fight oppression but they advocate the mobilisation of love and truth to win the hearts and minds of the oppressors.

5. Differentiate between the major approaches, discussed in the chapter, to the establishment of peace in the world.


The major approaches that are discuss in the chapter to the establishment of peace in the world are:

• The First Approach: It is related centrally to states which favours sovereignty and deals with fair competition between the states. Its chief concern is with the proper management of this competition and with the containment of possible conflict.

• The Second Approach: It put emphasis on increasing social and economic cooperation among nations. The economic integration and interdependence that leads to political unification.

• The Third Approach: It considers state as passing phase of human history. It cisualises the state as a transitory system and the emergence of a global community surpassing the state system to maintain world peace. The process of globalisation has accelerated the process by reducing the influence of state and diluting the concept of sovereignty.

Notes of Ch 7 Nationalism

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