Notes of Chapter 2 Diversity and Discrimination Class 6th Civics

Difference and Prejudice


• People are are different in terms of living, eating, speaking, clothing and various other things.

• Difference are influenced by the geography and history of the place where we live.

Diversity is not always celebrated. Why?

• People don’t feel safe and secure with people who don’t look, talk, dress or think like them.

• People also form certain attitudes and opinions about others who are not like them.
→ For example: villagers  as  ignorant  and superstitious, while people in cities as money-minded, lazy and cunning.


• Prejudice means to judge other people negatively or see them as inferior.

• For example, if we think English is the best language and other languages are not important, we are judging these other languages negatively. As a result, we might not respect people who speak languages other than English.

• We can be prejudiced about many things such as about people's religious beliefs, the colour of their skin, the region they come from, the accent they speak in, the clothes they wear  etc.

Creating Stereotypes

• All of us are familiar with gender differences.

• Stereotypes affect all of us as they prevent us from doing certain things, that we might otherwise be good at. 

What is Stereotype?

• Stereotypes stop us from looking at each person as a unique individual with his or her own special qualities and skills that are different from others. 

• They fit large numbers of people into only one pattern or type. 

Discrimination and Inequality

What is discrimination?

• Discrimination means treating a person unfairly especially on the grounds of race, age or sex.

How does it happen?

• Discrimination happens when people act on their prejudices or stereotypes.

What is inequality?

• The unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people.

• For example: Like, People who are poor do not have the resources or the money to meet their basic needs of food, clothing and shelter.

Who are treated as both discriminated and unequally?

• Tribals, some religious groups and even particular regions, are discriminated against for one or more of these reasons. 


• In the caste system, communities/ groups of people were placed in a sort of ladder where each caste was either above or below the other. 

• Those who placed themselves at the top of this ladder called themselves upper caste and saw themselves as superior. 

• The groups who were placed at the bottom of the ladder were seen as unworthy and called "untouchables".


• Dalit is a term that people belonging to so-called lower castes use to address themselves.

Striving for Equality

Struggle by people

• Struggle was started for freedom from British rule which included the large groups of people who not only fought against the British but also fought to be treated more equally.

Why Struggle?

• Dalits organized themselves to gain entry into temples.

• Women demanded that they should have as much a right to education as men did.

• Peasants and tribals fought to release themselves from the grasp of the moneylender and the high interest they were charged.


• When India became a nation in 1947 our leaders too were concerned about  the  different  kinds  of inequalities that existed. 

• Leaders set out a vision and goals in the Constitution to ensure that all the people of India were considered equal such as:

→ Untouchability is seen as a crime and has been legally abolished by law.

→ Government jobs are open to all people. 

→ People have the freedom to follow their religion, speak their language, celebrate their festivals and express themselves freely.

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