Notes of Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans Class 7th History

• Under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi became an important commercial centre.

• In the beginning of the thirteenth century, the transformation of Delhi into a capital started with the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate.

• The Delhi Sultans built many cities in the area that we now know as Delhi.

The Rulers of Delhi

Dynasties  Times Period 
Rajput Dynasties
Tomaras Early twelfth century-1165
Ananga Pala 1130-1145
Chauhans 1165-1192
Prithviraj Chauhan 1175-1192
Early Turkish Rulers  1206-1290
Qutbuddin Aybak  1206-1210
Shamsuddin Iltutmish 1210-1236
Raziyya  1236-1240
Ghiyasuddin Balban  1266-1287
Khalji Dynasty 1290-1320
Jalaluddin Khalji  1290-1296
Alauddin Khalji 1296-1316
Tughluq Dynasty 1320-1414
Ghiyasuddin Tughluq  1320-1324
Muhammad Tughluq  1324-1351
Firuz Shah Tughluq  1351-1388
Sayyid Dynasty1414-1451
Khizr Khan  1414-1421
Lodi Dynasty1451-1526
Bahlul Lodi  1451-1489

Finding Out about the Delhi Sultans

• Inscriptions, coins and architecture are the sources of information on the Sultans of Delhi.

• Tawarikh written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.

• In 1236 Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya became Sultan.
→ She was removed from the throne in 1240.

The Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate

• Delhi’s authority was also challenged by Mongol invasions from Afghanistan.

• The Sultanate consolidation occurred during the reign of Ghiyasuddin Balban and further expansion under Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq.

• The first set of campaigns along the “internal frontier” of the Sultanate aimed at consolidating the hinterlands of the garrison towns.

• The second expansion occurred along the “external frontier” of the Sultanate.

Consolidation under the Khaljis and Tughluqs

• The Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes which were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or muqti.

• Large parts of the subcontinent remained outside the control of the Delhi Sultans.
→ It was difficult to control distant provinces like Bengal from Delhi.

• Local chieftains established their rule in these regions.

• Sometimes rulers like Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq could force their control in these
areas but only for a short duration.

• The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219.

• Mongol attacks on the Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early years of Muhammad Tughluq’s rule.

The Sultanate in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

• After the Tughluqs, the Sayyid and Lodi dynasties ruled from Delhi and Agra until 1526.

• By then, Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Rajasthan and the entire south India had independent rulers who established flourishing states and prosperous capitals.

• This was also the period which saw the emergence of new ruling groups like the Afghans and the Rajputs.

• Sher Shah Sur (1540-1545) started his career as the manager of a small territory for his uncle in Bihar and eventually challenged and defeated the Mughal emperor Humayun (1530-1540, 1555-1556).

NCERT Solutions of Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans

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