Quick Revision Notes of Chapter 1 Rise of Nationalism in Europe for Board Exams| Class 10th - Download PDF 

• In 19th century Europe, nationalism brought drastic changes in the political and mental world of Europe.
→ This led to the emergence of different nation-State in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.

• French Revolution (1789) was the first expression of nationalism.
→ It ended monarchy in France and gave power to the citizens.
→ Napoleonic code (Civil Code of 1804) made administrative machinery more efficient.

• The word 'liberalism' stood for freedom in the political, social and economic spheres.

• In 1815, Napoleon was defeated in the 'Battle of Waterloo' by the collective European forces of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria.
→ The European forces drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes happened during the Napoleonic wars.
→ Congress of Vienna did not tolerate criticism and dissent and resulted in several liberal-nationalist groups going underground.
→ Now, the revolutionary groups started seeing the formation of nation-state as a necessity to the freedom struggle.

• In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor when three war over seven years ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification under the leadership of Otto Van Bismarck.

• Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy
→ In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

• The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
→ In 1801, Ireland was forcibly taken by the British after the failed revolution.
→ A new ‘British Nation’ was founded through the propagation of a dominant English culture.

• Nations were portrayed as female figure (Allegory).
→ Marianne was the female allegory of France while Germania became the allegory of Germany.

• Nationalism along with imperialism led Europe to a disaster which ultimately resulted in the First World War in 1914.

Important terms 

1. Absolutist - A government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. in history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and

2. Utopian - A vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.

3. Plebiscite - A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.

4. Conservatism - A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs and preferred gradual development to quick change.

5. Zollverein - It was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German States. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduce the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
6. Romanticism - A cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of Nationalist sentiment.

7. Liberalism - This word is derived from the Latin root liber meaning free.

8. Junkers - Important personalities and Large landowners of Prussia.

Important Personalities 

1. Mazzini - An Italian revolutionary who is known for his noble efforts to achieve the unification of Italy. He is regarded as the spiritual force behind the Italian unification. He founded Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.

2. Garibaldi - He is known as the physical force or the Sword of Italy. He with Mazzini launched the young Italy movement for the unification of Italy. He involved The sardinian sailors to Revolt in 1835 A.D.

3. Cavour - Cavour was the chief minister of Sardinia-Piedmont. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.

3. Giuseppe Garibaldi  - He helped Chief Minister, Cavour by leading a large number of armed volunteers and marching into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.

4. Bismarck - He played the most important role in the unification of Germany, his policy of blood and iron was mainly responsible. Meaning of symbols.

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