Notes of Chapter 4 Maps Class 6th Geography


• A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is impossible to flatten a round shape completely.

Different types of Maps

Physical Maps

• Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.

Political Maps

• Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.

Thematic Maps

• Some maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.

Components of Maps


• Maps are two-dimensional drawings. It reduces the entire world or a part of the world on a small sheet of paper. While making a map, cartographers pay attention to properly represent the distance between two places. This helps us in finding the actual distance between two places.

• Small Scale Map: When a large area is shown on a small map, such a map is called a small scale map. Example; map of a country or state.

• Large Scale Map: When a small area such as a village is shown on a map, such a map is called a large scale map. A map of a neighbourhood is another example of large scale map. A large scale map gives more details compared to a small scale map.


• A map also contains information about directions. 

• On most of the maps, you will usually see an upward arrow and the letter ‘N’. This shows the north direction. Once we know the north, we can easily find the other directions. North, South, East and West are the four major directions. These are called Cardinal Directions. 

• Some maps also show the intermediate directions, viz. north-east, south-east, south-west and north-west.


• Compass is very useful for finding directions at a place. 

• This is a small circular box with a magnetic needle inside. 

• The needle of the compass always points in the north-south direction. 

• Compass has been used by travellers and sailors since ages.


• Cartographers also need to show various details; like important structures, landmarks, etc. on a map. These things are shown by some standard symbols on the map. 

• While using colours to show different themes and items on a map; certain conventions are followed. Mountains are usually shown in brown colour, plains in green, water body in blue and plateau is shown in yellow.


• A drawing based on memory is called a sketch. A sketch is not made to scale. A sketch map is useful when you need to show directions to your house to your friend.


• Drawing of a small area on a large scale is called a plan. Architects usually make plans to show the layout of a house.

Extra Questions of Chapter 4 Maps

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