Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes Social Science (S.St)

Civil Rights Movement in the USA

• This is a set of events and reform movements aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans.

• The movement is led by Martin Luther King during the period of 1954-1968.

Differences, similarities, divisions

What is Social Differences

• Social Differences are social identities based on accident of birth or on individual choices.

Origin of Social Differences

• Most of the social differences are based on an accident of birth. 

• Some of the differences are based on our choices.

Social Division

• It is a situation of conflict based on social inequalities such as religion, caste etc.

• Every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.

Overlapping Differences

• Social division takes place when some social differences overlaps with other differences.

Cross-cutting differences

• If Social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against other.

Politics of social divisions

• Democracy involves competition among various political parties.

• Competition divides society and turns them into political divisions which ultimately lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.

Three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions

• The outcome depends on how people perceive their identities.
→ If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate.

• Depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community
→ It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.

• Depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups
→ If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country.

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