NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 2 The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th: Ch 2 The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Fundamentals of Human Geography

Exercises

Page No: 16

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following continents has the highest growth of population?
(a) Africa
(b) South America
(c) Asia
(d) North America
► (a) Africa

(ii) Which one of the following is not an area of sparse population?
(a) The Atacama
(b) South-east Asia
(c) Equatorial region
(d) Polar regions
► (b) South-east Asia

(iii) Which one of the following is not a push factor ?
(a) Water shortage
(b) Medical/educational facilities
(c) Unemployment
(d) Epidemics
► (b) Medical/educational facilities

(iv) Which one of the following is not a fact?
(a) Human population increased more than ten times during the past 500 years.
(b) Nearly 80 million people are added to the world population each year.
(c) It took 100 years for the population to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion.
(d) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic transition?
► (c) It took 100 years for the population to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion.

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Name three geographical factors that influence the distribution of population.

Answer

Three geographical factors that influence the distribution of population are:
• Availability of water
• Landforms
• Climate

(ii) There are a number of areas with high population density in the world. Why does this happen?

Answer

This happens due to the following factors:
• Geographical factors such as adequate availability of water, plain landforms, comfortable climate and fertile soils attract people.
• Economic factors such as mining and industrial activities generate employment, urbanisation and industrialisation also attract a large number of people.
• Social and Cultural Factors: people tend to move away from places where there is social and political unrest.

(iii) What are the three components of population change?

Answer

Three components of population change are birth rate, death rate and migration.

3. Distinguish between:

(i) Birth rate and death rate.
(ii) Push factors and pull factors of migration.

Answer

Birth Rate Death Rate
The number of live births per thousand of
population in a year is called crude birth rate.
The number of deaths per thousand of
population in a year is called crude birth rate.
It is calculated as:
CBR = Bi/P ✖ 1000
Here, CBR = Crude Birth Rate; Bi = live
births during the year; P=Mid year population
of the area
It is calculated as:
CDR = D/P ✖ 1000
Here, CDR=Crude Death Rate; D= Number
of deaths; P=Estimated mid-year population of
that year.

Push factors of migration Pull factors of migration
These factors cause people to move away from a place. These factors cause people to come from outside places.
Push factors are due to unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters,
epidemics and socio-economic backwardness
Pull factors are due to  better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.

4. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world.

Answer

The various factors that influence the distribution and density of population in the world are:

(i) Geographical Factors:

• Availability of water: People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available. Water is used for drinking, bathing and cooking – and also for cattle, crops, industries and navigation.

• Landforms: People prefer living on flat plains and gentle slopes because such areas are favourable for the production of crops and to build roads and industries.

• Climate: An extreme climate such as very hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for human habitation. Areas with a comfortable climate, where there is not much seasonal variation attract more
people.

• Soils: Fertile soils are important for agricultural and allied activities. Therefore, areas which have fertile loamy soils have more people living on them.

(ii) Economic Factors

• Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits attract industries. Mining and industrial activities generate employment therefore these areas are densly populated.

• Urbanisation: Cities offer better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, better means of transport and communication.

• Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide job opportunities and attract large numbers of people.

(iii) Social and Cultural Factors: Some places attract more people because they have religious or cultural significance. People tend to move away from places where there is social and political unrest. Many a times governments offer incentives to people to live in sparsely populated areas or move away from overcrowded places.

(ii) Discuss the three stages of demographic transition.

Answer

The three stages of demographic transition are:

• The first stage has high fertility and high mortality because people reproduce more to compensate for the deaths due to epidemics and variable food supply. The population growth is slow and most of the people are engaged in agriculture where large families are an asset. Life expectancy is low, people are mostly illiterate and have low levels of technology.

• Fertility remains high in the beginning of second stage but it declines with time. This is accompanied by reduced mortality rate. Improvements in sanitation and health conditions lead to decline in mortality. Because of this gap the net addition to population is high.

• In the last stage, both fertility and mortality decline considerably. The population is either stable or grows slowly. The population becomes urbanised, literate and has high technical know-how and deliberately controls the family size.

Map Skill

On the outline map of the world, show and name the following.

(i) Countries of Europe and Asia with negative growth rate of population.

(ii) African countries with growth rate of population more than three percent. (You may refer to Appendix 1).

Answer

(i) Countries of Europe and Asia with negative growth rate of population are:
Latvia, Estonia ,Russia, Ukraine, Saudi Arabia, Albania, Bulgaria, Oman, Croatia, Slovania, Czech Republic, Germany, Portugal.

(ii) Liberia, Somalia, Rawanda, Angola, Niger and Eritrea.


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