Study Material and Notes of Development of Phy. Edu. - Post Independence Class 11th Physical Education

After independence in 1947, the Government of India taken various measures for development of Physical Education. Various organisations were set up and steps were taken to improve the condition of Physical Education.

• In 1948, National Credit Corps (NCC) and Auxiliary Credit Corps (ACC) at school and college levels were introduced.

• The Central Advisory Board of Physical Education and Recreation (CABPER): This committee was set up in 1950 by Government of India. The Board advised the government on various issues for the development of Physical Education in India.

Various recommendations made by the Board:

→ Development training of leaders in Physical Education
→ Institution of Scholarship for research in Physical Education
→ Conduct of National Physical Efficiency Drive
→ Conducting seminar on Physical Education
→ Providing financial assistance to the colleges of Physical Education
→ Providing directions to the state governments for affecting the organization of Physical Education in their respective states.

• Rajkumari Coaching Scheme: This scheme was introduced by the Government of India in 1953 with the aim of training good athletes and sportsmen. The scheme received wide popularity since famous players like Major. Dhyan Chand, Dr. Ram Singh were working under this scheme.

• All India Council of Sports: Union Ministry of Education formed AICS in 1953 with the purpose of establishing a link between Central Government and various sports associations and federations. This council facilitates financial assistance to these federations and check proper utilisation of funds. It worked on many programmes to raise the standards of sports.

• National Discipline Scheme: This scheme was introduced in 1954 by the Ministry of Rehabilitation under the guidance of General J. K. Bhonsle with the aim of building strong youth of the nation. The scheme inculcated discipline and imparted training in mass drill among the younger generation in the refugee camps and colonies. In 1958, this scheme was transferred to the Ministry of Education and was enlarged to cover a number of high schools.

• In 1956, A National Syllabus of Physical Activities was formed.

• In 1957, Lakshmibai College of Physical Education, Gwalior was set up by the Government of India. The college started a three-year degree course in Physical Education.
→ In 1973, the institute was given the status of National importance, therefore, it was renamed as Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education (LNCPE).
→ In 1982, it was given the status of an ’Autonomous College’.
→ In 1995, it was given the status of a “Deemed to be University' and was again renamed as Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education (LNIPE).

• Adhoc Inquiry Committee: In 1958, Adhoc Inquiry committee was set up a to make an inquiry about India’s poor performance and downward slide in Olympic games. It suggested many ways to improve the standards of Indian competitions in all games and sports such as appropriate training and a special diet for players.

• Kunzru Committee: In 1959, Government of India appointed a Co-ordination Committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. Hirdya Math Kunzuru, to examining the various schemes for Physical Education, recreation, character building and discipline operating in Educational Institutions, and to recommend measure for the proper Co-ordination.

• National Physical Efficiency Drive (NPED): It was launched by Ministry of Education in 1959-60 with the sole aim of motivating citizens to raise interest in physical fitness. The plan consisted of certain items of Physical Efficiency tests which prescribed standards for achievement.

• In 1961, According to the recommendations of the Adhoc-Enquiry Committee of 1958 the National Institute of Sports (NIS) was established by the Government of India in 1961 at state Bagh, Palance, Patiala. In 1973, this institute was renamed as Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports (NSNIS).

• Kaul Kapoor Committee: This committee consisted of two members of All India Council of Sports by Government of India. The committee analyze Olympic Games held in Rome in 1961 and submitted it reports in 1963. It said Physical Education as the base for the development of interest in Games and Sports. It considered Physical Education as a part of general education in schools and colleges. It should be one of the subjects in the Universities for graduates.

• Kothari Commission: This committee was constituted in 1964. As per this commission:
→ Physical education not only aims at physical fitness but also has educational values. It contributes to physical efficiency, mental alertness and the development of certain qualities like perseverance, team spirit, leadership and obedience to rules.
→  At the pre-primary and early primary stages, the syllabus should aim at developing among children the mastery over basic skills, such as walking properly, running, throwing, etc.
→ At the secondary stage, the syllabus may contain sports, games and athletics in their standard form.
→ After the primary stage, the syllabus should be planned separately for boys and girls. Rhythmic activities will have an appeal for girls, less strenuous games, such as badminton, throw-ball, etc.

• In 1965, Committee on Physical Education under the chairmanship of C.D. Deshmukh set up by University Grants Commission for removing inadequacies in and raising the standards of Physical Education. The committee examine the present facilities for the same in Indian Universities and colleges. The committee suggested that the universities and colleges must be provided better infrastructural facilities and coaching programs.

• Sports Authority of India (SAI): Asian Games were held successfully in New Delhi in 1982. After this, Department of Sports, Govt. of India formed Sports Authority of India on 25th January 1984. This organization was formed to increase and raise the standards of sports in India. The SAI undertook the responsibilities to maintain and utilize grounds which were constructed/renovated for the IXth Asian Games held in 1982. It also implement programmes for achieving excellence in sports in different disciplines at international level. It also produces and manages sports coaches, educators and teachers and lookout other issues such as promotion and management of sports.

• National Policy of Education 1986 emphasized the importance of Physical Education in following ways:
→ Sports and Physical Educations are an integral part of the learning process, and will be included in the evaluation of performance.
→ A Nation-wide infrastructure for Physical Education, Sports and games will be built into the educational edifice. The infrastructure will consist of play fields, equipment, coaches and teachers of Physical Education as part of the school improvement programme.
→ Available open spaces in urban areas will be reserved for playgrounds.
→ Effects will be made to established sports Institution and hostels where specialized attention will be given to sports activities and sports related studies, along with normal education.
→ Appropriate encouragement will be given to those talented in games and sports.
→ Effects will be made to introduce Yoga in all schools and also in teacher training courses.
→ It also recommended for a minimum of 10 periods per week for Physical Education activities in low primary and upper primary stages, and 7 periods per week at the second stage.

• National Council o EducationalResearch and Training (NCERT): The NCERT developed the National Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary school in 1988. The Health and Physical Education and sports included in the core curriculum. 

• NCERT put formed a revised curriculum for school education and in 1992 and its revised edition is Nov. 2000. under the title National Curriculum Frame Work for School Education. In this curriculum include. Health and Physical Education as one of the core subjects in all levels of school educations.

• Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports: An independent ministry was made on 27th May 2000. It has two separate departments named Department of Youth Affairs and Department of Sports. The role of Department of Sports is to create the infrastructure and promote capacity building for broad-basing sports as well as for achieving excellence in various competitive events at the national and international levels.

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