Agriculture and Development- Geography Guide for Class 8

Agriculture and Development- Geography Guide for Class 8

Information about Agriculture and Development


Agriculture and Development


Class 8


Class 8 Geography

Topics Covered

  • Importance of Agriculture
  • Agricultural Development


We know food is the basic requirement of human beings for their survival. This requirement of food has led to the development of agriculture.
Earlier, human beings were dependent upon food gathering, hunting and fishing for their survival. 
Gradually, they started growing crops along the river valleys which led to the beginning of agriculture. It helped ancient civilisations to flourish along the river valleys.
Agriculture means cultivation of land. In wider terms, agriculture is the science and art of raising crops, rearing of livestock, forestry and fishing. 

Importance of Agriculture

Most of the population of the world still depends on agriculture for its livelihood. It is a major occupation of people in the developing countries of the world.
India is an agricultural country. Hence, it is the backbone of our country's economic development. 
  • Agriculture not only supplies food to the people but also creates huge market for tractors, threshers, harvesters, fertilisers, pesticides and other industrial products.
  • It helps in providing employment, eradicating poverty, enhancing trade and earning foreign exchange. 
  • Agriculture also plays an important role in strengthening global relations by encouraging international trade of agricultural products. 

Agricultural Development

Food is essential for the growth of all human beings. With the growth of population in the world, the demand of food has also increased.
Earlier, people had surplus food because the population was less than the production. With the passage of time, population explosion has increased the pressure on land to produce more food. This situation compelled the people to develop new techniques of agriculture so that productivity could be increased. 

The farmers started using HYV of seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, insecticides and modern equipments. Now, some countries have developed genetically modified crops through biotechnology.
  • Biotechnology involves the use of living organisms and bio-processes in engineering, technology, medicine, etc. It also covers genetic engineering, cell and tissue, culture technologies, manufacture of drugs, environmental management, etc.
In this, the higher yield is produced by introducing foreign genes from different species. It has more nutritional value, better flavour and colour in the food. The use of genetically modified crops is still limited. Scientists believe that genetically modified crops can help the environment by reducing the problem of pesticides.

Critics of biotechnology are worried about the adverse effects of genetically modified crops on the environment.
In developing countries, manual labour is used for most of the agricultural activities, whereas in developed countries, agriculture is highly mechanised. Most of the population of the developing countries is engaged in agriculture and its allied activities. However, the ratio of population in agriculture is minimum in developed countries like Canada and USA.

Difference between farm in USA and farm in India 


A Farm in the USA

A Farm in India

1. Size of farm

Large farms but yield per hectare is comparatively low.

Small land holdings but yield per hectare is high.

2. Capital

High capital investment.

Comparatively low capital investment which is mainly borrowed from banks money lenders.

3. Market

Produce is meant for national and international market as storage facilities are adequate.

Produce is meant for local market du( to lack of storage facilities

4. Labour



5. Mechanisation

Extensive use of tractors, combined harvesters and threshers.

Traditional methods, limited use of machines, still using bullocks tc plough the field.

6. Technology

Extensive use of advanced technology.

Marginal use of modern technology.

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